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Table 9 By Age: Self-employment and Informal Earnings Premiums(+) or Penalties(-), by Income Group

From: How Large are Earnings Penalties for Self-Employed and Informal Wage Workers?

A. All self-employed vs. all employees Age 15-24 (Standard Error) Age 25-44 (Standard Error) Age 45-64 (Standard Error)
 Total sample -0.075 (0.107)   -0.080 (0.107)   -0.056 (0.027) **
 Low Income 0.077 (0.010)   0.208 (0.062) *** 0.205 (0.052) ***
 Low Middle Income -0.250 (0.045) *** -0.128 (0.057) ** -0.068 (0.010) ***
 Upper Middle Income 0.037 (0.095)   -0.008 (0.088)   -0.051 (0.011)  
 High Income 0.317 (0.469) *** -0.248 (0.025) *** -0.356 (0.306)  
B. Non-professional own-account workers vs. all employees Age 15-24 (Standard Error) Age 25-44 (Standard Error) Age 45-64 (Standard Error)
 Total sample -0.137 (0.084)   -0.153 (0.057) *** -0.202 (0.073) ***
 Low Income 0.193 (0.055) *** 0.255 (0.039) *** 0.302 (0.029) ***
 Low Middle Income -0.247 (0.035) *** -0.200 (0.028) *** -0.205 (0.117) *
 Upper Middle Income 0.031 (0.048)   -0.059 (0.045)   -0.080 (0.053)  
 High Income -0.235 (0.049) *** -0.319 (0.012) *** -0.332 (0.020) ***
C. Employers and Professionals vs. Employees Age 15-24 (Standard Error) Age 25-44 (Standard Error) Age 45-64 (Standard Error)
 Total sample -0.917 (1.287)   0.187 (0.152)   0.277 (0.123) ***
 Low Income -5.436 (0.114) *** -2.718 (2.078)   -2.588 (2.216)  
 Low Middle Income 0.114 (0.310)   0.143 (0.158)   0.465 (0.055) ***
 Upper Middle Income 0.537 (0.045) *** 0.522 (0.057) *** 0.554 (0.074) ***
 High Income 0.889 (0.471) * 0.025 (0.044)   0.106 (0.051) **
C. Informal vs. Formal Employees Age 15-24 (Standard Error) Age 25-44 (Standard Error) Age 45-64 (Standard Error)
 Total sample -0.311 (0.024) *** -0.317 (0.019) *** -0.393 (0.020) ***
 Low Income -0.090 (0.117)   -0.132 (0.063)   -0.232 (0.133) *
 Low Middle Income -0.330 (0.050) *** -0.324 (0.032) *** -0.416 (0.021) ***
 Upper Middle Income -0.305 (0.016) *** -0.315 (0.019) *** -0.388 (0.025) ***
 High Income na na   na na   na na  
  1. Notes: * significantly different from zero at 10%; ** significantly different from zero at 5%; *** singnificantly different from zero at 1%