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Table 8 By Education Level: Self-employment and Informal Earnings Premiums(+) or Penalties(-), by Income Group

From: How Large are Earnings Penalties for Self-Employed and Informal Wage Workers?

A. All self-employed vs. all employees Primary Incomplete (Standard Error) Primary Graduate (Standard Error) Secondary Graduate and University Incomplete (Standard Error) University Graduate (Standard Error)
 Total sample -0.042 (0.060)   -0.099 (0.104)   -0.004 (0.025)   0.004 (0.007)  
 Low Income 0.239 (0.089) *** 0.168 (0.076) ** -0.013 (0.014)   0.001 (0.006)  
 Low Middle Income -0.128 (0.034) *** -0.238 (0.077) *** -0.027 (0.074)   0.032 0.091  
 Upper Middle Income -0.037 (0.089)   0.012 (0.134)   0.077 (0.023) *** 0.034 (0.022)  
 High Income -0.167 (0.049) *** -0.143 (0.026) *** -0.168 (0.029) *** -0.014 (0.011)  
B. Informal vs. Formal Primary Incomplete (Standard Error) Primary Graduate (Standard Error) Secondary Graduate and University Incomplete (Standard Error) University Graduate (Standard Error)
 Total sample -0.363 (0.015) *** -0.379 (0.025) *** -0.431 (0.041) *** -0.444 (0.039) ***
 Low Income -0.362 (0.248)   -0.196 (0.060) *** -0.253 (0.151) * -0.058 (0.155)  
 Low Middle Income -0.394 (0.037) *** -0.365 (0.051) *** -0.520 (0.104) *** -0.408 (0.036) ***
 Upper Middle Income -0.353 (0.016) *** -0.385 (0.020) *** -0.391 0.025 *** -0.471 (0.053) ***
 High Income na na   na na   na na   na na  
  1. Notes: * significantly different from zero at 10%; ** significantly different from zero at 5%; *** singnificantly different from zero at 1%