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Table 7 Male vs. Female: Self-employment and Informal Earnings Premiums(+) or Penalties(-), by Region of the World

From: How Large are Earnings Penalties for Self-Employed and Informal Wage Workers?

A. All self-employed vs. all employees Self-employment vs. Employees       
  Female (SE) Male (SE)       
 Total sample -0.177 (0.080) ** -0.053 (0.067)        
 Latin America & Caribbean -0.091 (0.099)   0.011 (0.086)        
 Europe & Central Asia (High-Income) -0.162 (0.041) *** -0.256 (0.131) **       
 Europe & Central Asia (Developing) -0.254 (0.054) *** -0.202 (0.062) ***       
 Other -0.300 (0.099) *** -0.075 (0.099)        
B. Non-professional own-account and employers and professionals vs. all employees Non-professional Own-Account vs. Employees Employers & Professionals vs. Employees
  Female (SE) Male (SE) Female (SE) Male (SE)
 Total sample -0.218 (0.090) ** -0.114 (0.072)   -0.190 (0.075) ** 0.184 (0.156)  
 Latin America & Caribbean -0.059 (0.056)   0.000 (0.029)   -0.069 (0.043)   0.498 (0.050) ***
 Europe & Central Asia (High-Income) -0.634 (0.178) *** -0.368 (0.123) *** 0.030 (0.026)   -0.027 (0.075)  
 Europe & Central Asia (Developing) -0.433 (0.057) *** -0.322 (0.059) *** 0.001 (0.036)   -0.074 (0.064)  
 Other -0.328 (0.119) *** -0.130 (0.102) *** -0.429 (0.090) *** -0.102 (0.316)  
C. Informal vs. Formal Non-professional Own-Account vs. Employers & Professionals Informal Employees vs. Formal Employees
  Female (SE) Male (SE) Female (SE) Male (SE)
 Total sample 0.214 (0.667)   -0.192 0.259   -0.341 (0.013) *** -0.337 (0.021) ***
 Latin America & Caribbean -0.663 (0.054) *** -0.587 (0.034) *** -0.335 (0.009) *** -0.329 (0.025) ***
 Europe & Central Asia (High-Income) -0.503 (0.134) *** -0.415 (0.049) *** na na   na na  
 Europe & Central Asia (Developing) -0.330 (0.056) *** -0.251 (0.020) *** -0.035 (0.071)   -0.009 (0.046)  
 Other 0.730 (1.208)   -0.040 0.409   -0.671 (0.055) *** -0.643 (0.013) ***
D. Non-professional own-account vs. formal and informal employees Non-professional Own-account vs. Formal Employees Non-professional Own-account vs. Informal Employees
  Female (SE) Male (SE) Female (SE) Male (SE)
 Total sample -0.226 (0.071) *** -0.123 (0.043) ** 0.163 (0.078) ** 0.273 (0.045) ***
 Latin America & Caribbean -0.186 (0.065) *** -0.105 (0.049) ** 0.182 (0.074) ** 0.284 (0.042) **
 Europe & Central Asia (High-Income) na na   na na   na na   na na  
 Europe & Central Asia (Developing) -0.283 (0.217)   -0.202 (0.033) *** -0.257 (0.211)   -0.115 (0.074) *
 Other -0.887 (0.023) *** -0.578 (0.007) *** -0.090 (0.010) *** 0.130 (0.007) ***
  1. Notes: * significantly different from zero at 10%; ** significantly different from zero at 5%; *** singnificantly different from zero at 1%