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Table 6 Male vs. Female: Self-employment and Informal Earnings Premiums(+) or Penalties(-), by Income Group

From: How Large are Earnings Penalties for Self-Employed and Informal Wage Workers?

A. All self-employed vs. all employees Self-employment vs. Employees       
  Female (SE) Male (SE)       
 Total sample -0.177 (0.080) ** -0.053 (0.067)        
 Low Income -0.145 (0.084) * 0.310 (0.036) ***       
 Low Middle Income -0.142 (0.028) *** -0.224 (0.106) **       
 Upper Middle Income -0.084 (0.118)   -0.002 (0.106)        
 High Income -0.400 (0.054) *** -0.072 (0.037) *       
B. Non-professional own-account and employers and professionals vs. all employees Non-professional Own-Account vs. Employees Employers & Professionals vs. Employees
  Female (SE) Male (SE) Female (SE) Male (SE)
 Total sample -0.218 (0.090) ** -0.114 (0.072)   -0.190 (0.075) ** 0.184 (0.156)  
 Low Income -0.116 (0.099)   0.347 (0.007) *** -0.441 (0.195) ** -3.567 (2.003) *
 Low Middle Income -0.147 (0.018) *** -0.313 (0.082) *** -0.186 (0.106) * 0.266 (0.146) *
 Upper Middle Income -0.070 (0.071)   -0.006 (0.046)   -0.035 (0.025)   0.584 (0.037) ***
 High Income -0.487 (0.014) *** -0.134 (0.037) *** -0.279 (0.068) *** 0.196 (0.070) ***
C. Informal vs. Formal Non-professional Own-Account vs. Employers & Professionals Informal Employees vs. Formal Employees
  Female (SE) Male (SE) Female (SE) Male (SE)
 Total sample 0.214 (0.667)   -0.192 0.259   -0.341 (0.013) *** -0.337 (0.021) ***
 Low Income 5.852 (0.638) *** 4.236 1.890 ** -0.016 (0.080)   -0.238 (0.105) **
 Low Middle Income 0.063 (0.478)   -0.428 0.036 *** -0.362 (0.015) *** -0.353 (0.041) ***
 Upper Middle Income -0.669 (0.059) *** -0.610 0.021 *** -0.337 (0.017) *** -0.332 (0.018) ***
 High Income -0.410 (0.013) *** -0.373 0.019 *** na na   na na  
D. Non-professional own-account vs. formal and informal employees Non-professional Own-account vs. Formal Employees Non-professional Own-account vs. Informal Employees
  Female (SE) Male (SE) Female (SE) Male (SE)
 Total sample -0.226 (0.071) *** -0.123 (0.043) *** 0.163 (0.078) ** -0.273 0.045 ***
 Low Income -0.284 (0.427)   -0.234 (0.318)   -0.176 (0.299)   0.408 0.162 **
 Low Middle Income -0.327 (0.036) *** -0.153 (0.074) ** 0.136 (0.095)   -0.213 0.076 ***
 Upper Middle Income -0.193 (0.089) ** -0.104 (0.047) ** 0.175 (0.084) ** -0.296 0.039 ***
 High Income na na   na na   na na   na na  
  1. Notes: * significantly different from zero at 10%; ** significantly different from zero at 5%; *** singnificantly different from zero at 1%