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Table 5 For Urban Workers Only: Self-employment and Informal Earnings Premiums(+) or Penalties(-), by Income Group

From: How Large are Earnings Penalties for Self-Employed and Informal Wage Workers?

A. All self-employed vs. all employees Self-employment vs. Employees (Standard Error)        Number of Countries Number of Surveys
 Total sample -0.046 (0.065)         73 347
 Low Income 0.248 (0.050) ***        20 32
 Low Middle Income -0.053 (0.046)         23 134
 Upper Middle Income -0.010 (0.090)         16 114
 High Income -0.224 (0.022) ***        14 67
B. Non-professional own-account and employers and professionals vs. all employees Non-professional Own-Account vs. Employees (Standard Error) Employers & Professionals vs. Employees (Standard Error)     Number of Countries Number of Surveys
 Total sample -0.126 (0.072) * 0.234 (0.125) *     42 152
 Low Income 0.272 (0.020) *** -3.556 (1.933) *     7 9
 Low Middle Income -0.173 (0.047) *** 0.216 (0.161) *     8 29
 Upper Middle Income -0.040 (0.077)   0.456 (0.095) ***     14 52
 High Income -0.305 (0.017) *** 0.079 (0.052) *     13 62
C. All Self-employed vs. informal and formal employees, informal vs. formal employees Self-employed vs. Formal Employees (Standard Error) Self-employed vs. Informal Employees (Standard Error) Informal vs. Formal Employees (Standard Error) Number of Countries Number of Surveys
 Total sample -0.074 (0.063)   0.208 (0.084) ** -0.657 (0.013) *** 34 190
 Low Income 0.091 (0.178)   0.283 (0.148) * -0.220 (0.110) * 9 11
 Low Middle Income -0.056 (0.016) *** 0.216 (0.052) *** -0.715 (0.022) *** 20 104
 Upper Middle Income -0.079 (0.076)   0.204 (0.099) ** -0.636 (0.026) ** 5 75
 High Income na na   na na   na na   0 0
D. Non-professional own-account vs. formal employees, informal employees and employers and professionals Non-professional Own-account vs. Formal Employees (Standard Error) Non-professional Own-account vs. Informal Employees (Standard Error) Non-professional O.A. vs. Employers and Professionals (Standard Error) Number of Countries Number of Surveys
 Total sample -0.156 (0.066) ** 0.253 (0.069) *** -0.627 (0.045) *** 15 58
 Low Income -0.215 (0.390)   -0.072 (0.174)   -0.134 (0.116) *** 4 4
 Low Middle Income -0.223 (0.045) *** 0.220 (0.101) ** -0.589 (0.065) *** 7 24
 Upper Middle Income -0.134 (0.085)   0.265 (0.067) *** -0.639 (0.042) *** 4 30
 High Income na na   na na   na na   0 0
  1. Notes: * significantly different from zero at 10%; ** significantly different from zero at 5%; *** singnificantly different from zero at 1%