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Table 4 Self-employment and Informal Earnings Premiums(+) or Penalties(-), by Region of the World

From: How Large are Earnings Penalties for Self-Employed and Informal Wage Workers?

A. All self-employed vs. all employees Self-employment vs. Employees (Standard Error)        Number of Countries Number of Surveys
 Total sample -0.095 (0.076)         73 347
 Latin America & Caribbean -0.017 (0.099)         20 217
 Europe & Central Asia (High-Income) -0.212 (0.146)         13 58
 Europe & Central Asia (Developing) -0.226 (0.060) ***        19 43
 Other -0.169 (0.073) **        21 29
   East Asia & Pacific -0.278 (0.000) ***        3 3
   Middle East & North Africa 0.379 (0.006) ***        2 3
   North America -0.243 (0.000) ***        1 3
   South Asia 0.269 (0.044) ***        2 3
   Sub-Saharan Africa -0.248 (0.068) ***        13 17
B. Non-professional own-account and employers and professionals vs. all employees Non-professional Own-Account vs. Employees (Standard Error) Employers & Professionals vs. Employees (Standard Error)     Number of Countries Number of Surveys
 Total sample -0.096 (0.067)   0.284 (0.095) ***     42 152
 Latin America & Caribbean 0.049 (0.027) * 0.495 (0.059) ***     7 52
 Europe & Central Asia (High-Income) -0.398 (0.118) *** 0.103 (0.110)      12 56
 Europe & Central Asia (Developing) -0.325 (0.057) *** -0.039 (0.046)      12 31
 Other -0.173 (0.061) *** 0.076 (0.049)      11 14
   East Asia & Pacific -0.252 (0.000) *** 0.024 (0.000) ***     2 2
   Middle East & North Africa 0.389 (0.004) *** 0.702 (0.005) ***     2 2
   North America -0.225 (0.000) *** 0.109 (0.000) ***     1 3
   South Asia 0.270 (0.000) *** 0.565 (0.000) ***     1 2
   Sub-Saharan Africa -0.364 (0.006) *** 0.420 (0.016) ***     5 5
C. All Self-employed vs. informal and formal employees, informal vs. formal employees Self-employed vs. Formal Employees (Standard Error) Self-employed vs. Informal Employees (Standard Error) Informal vs. Formal Employees (Standard Error) Number of Countries Number of Surveys
 Total sample -0.150 (0.115)   0.186 (0.113) * -0.337 (0.015) *** 34 190
 Latin America & Caribbean -0.146 (0.116)   -0.036 0.084   -0.329 (0.016) *** 18 172
 Europe & Central Asia (Developing) -0.024 (0.062)   0.190 0.116 * -0.018 (0.054)   9 11
   Middle East & North Africa 0.190 0.000   -0.431 na   0.241 na   1 1
   Sub-Saharan Africa 0.530 (0.019) *** 0.134 0.027 *** -0.663 (0.006) *** 6 6
D. Non-professional own-account vs. formal employees, informal employees and employers and professionals Non-professional Own-account vs. Formal Employees (Standard Error) Non-professional Own-account vs. Informal Employees (Standard Error) Non-professional O.A. vs. Employers and Professionals (Standard Error) Number of Countries Number of Surveys
 Total sample -0.150 (0.052) *** 0.245 (0.059) *** -0.674 (0.035) *** 15 58
 Latin America & Caribbean -0.122 (0.055) *** 0.259 (0.055) *** -0.670 (0.037) *** 6 47
 Europe & Central Asia (Developing) -0.221 (0.099) *** -0.245 (0.130) * -0.368 (0.137) *** 6 8
   Sub-Saharan Africa -0.696 (0.000) *** 0.035 (0.009) *** -1.002 (0.039) *** 3 3
  1. Notes: * significantly different from zero at 10%; ** significantly different from zero at 5%; *** singnificantly different from zero at 1%