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Table 3 Self-employment and Informal Earnings Premiums(+) or Penalties(-), by Income Group

From: How Large are Earnings Penalties for Self-Employed and Informal Wage Workers?

A. All self-employed vs. all employees Self-employment vs. Employees (Standard Error)        Number of Countries Number of Surveys
 Total sample -0.095 (0.076)         73 347
 Low Income 0.236 (0.055) ***        20 32
 Low Middle Income -0.168 (0.080) **        23 134
 Upper Middle Income -0.027 (0.118)         16 114
 High Income -0.238 (0.023) ***        14 67
B. Non-professional own-account and employers and professionals vs. all employees Non-professional Own-Account vs. Employees (Standard Error) Employers & Professionals vs. Employees (Standard Error)     Number of Countries Number of Surveys
 Total sample -0.096 (0.067)   0.284 (0.095) ***     42 152
 Low Income 0.286 (0.021) *** 0.590 (0.030) ***     7 9
 Low Middle Income -0.167 (0.079) ** 0.223 (0.131) *     8 29
 Upper Middle Income 0.035 (0.043)   0.563 (0.028) ***     14 52
 High Income -0.243 (0.018) *** 0.076 (0.030)      13 62
C. All Self-employed vs. informal and formal employees, informal vs. formal employees Self-employed vs. Formal Employees (Standard Error) Self-employed vs. Informal Employees (Standard Error) Informal vs. Formal Employees (Standard Error) Number of Countries Number of Surveys
 Total sample -0.208 (0.114) ** 0.131 (0.095)   -0.341 (0.013) *** 34 190
 Low Income -0.123 (0.236)   0.076 (0.140)   -0.016 (0.080)   9 11
 Low Middle Income -0.184 (0.028) *** 0.129 (0.065) ** -0.362 (0.015) *** 20 104
 Upper Middle Income -0.218 (0.150) * 0.132 (0.113) * -0.337 (0.017) *** 5 75
 High Income na na   na na   na na   0 0
D. Non-professional own-account vs. formal employees, informal employees and employers and professionals Non-professional Own-account vs. Formal Employees (Standard Error) Non-professional Own-account vs. Informal Employees (Standard Error) Non-professional O.A. vs. Employers and Professionals (Standard Error) Number of Countries Number of Surveys
 Total sample -0.150 (0.052) *** 0.245 (0.059) *** -1.015 (0.048) *** 15 58
 Low Income -0.157 (0.304)   -0.379 (0.122) *** -0.170 (0.192)   4 4
 Low Middle Income -0.234 (0.045) *** 0.207 (0.074) *** -0.968 (0.086) *** 7 24
 Upper Middle Income -0.117 (0.063) * 0.260 (0.057) *** -1.042 (0.040) *** 4 30
 High Income na na   na na   na na   0 0
  1. Notes: * significantly different from zero at 10%; ** significantly different from zero at 5%; *** singnificantly different from zero at 1%