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Table 1 Proportion of Workers in Each Employment Category, by Income Group

From: How Large are Earnings Penalties for Self-Employed and Informal Wage Workers?

A. Self-employed and employees Self-employment Shares (Standard Error) Employee Shares (Standard Error) Number of Countries Number of Surveys
 Total sample 0.267 (0.089) 0.733 (0.089) 73 347
 Income Group
  Low Income 0.546 (0.061) 0.454 (0.061) 20 32
  Low Middle Income 0.441 (0.026) 0.559 (0.026) 23 134
  Upper Middle Income 0.274 (0.026) 0.726 (0.026) 16 114
  High Income 0.115 (0.003) 0.885 (0.003) 14 67
B. Dividing self-employed into non -professional own account and employers/professional own-account Non-Professional Own-account Share (Standard Error) Employers & Professionals Share (Standard Error) Number of Countries Number of Surveys
 Total sample 0.225 (0.104) 0.033 (0.010) 42 152
 Income Group
  Low Income 0.501 (0.076) 0.020 (0.001) 7 9
  Low Middle Income 0.436 (0.030) 0.013 (0.007) 8 29
  Upper Middle Income 0.203 (0.025) 0.049 (0.004) 14 52
  High Income 0.070 (0.003) 0.045 (0.002) 13 62
C. Dividing employees into informal and formal Informal Employees (Standard Error) Formal Employees (Standard Error) Number of Countries Number of Surveys
 Total sample 0.244 (0.029) 0.447 (0.034) 34 190
 Income Group
  Low Income 0.135 (0.037) 0.089 (0.018) 9 11
  Low Middle Income 0.319 (0.090) 0.385 (0.062) 20 104
  Upper Middle Income 0.216 (0.019) 0.485 (0.036) 5 75
  High Income na na na na 0 0