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Table 5 Decomposition of the gender wage gap at selected quantiles, 2011

From: Two tales of contraction: gender wage gap in Georgia before and after the 2008 crisis

Variables Composition Structure
mean 10th 25th 50th 75th 90th mean 10th 25th 50th 75th 90th
Vocationala 0.0147 -0.0348 -0.0355 -0.0220 0.105** 0.0770* -0.0281 -0.0448 0.0110 0.0212 -0.106** -0.0811
  (0.0271) (0.114) (0.0264) (0.0366) (0.0429) (0.0424) (0.0339) (0.125) (0.0410) (0.0450) (0.0453) (0.0524)
Higher education -0.180** -0.701* -0.103 -0.0928 0.0749 0.114 0.0797 0.628 0.00889 -0.00216 -0.155 -0.262*
  (0.0851) (0.380) (0.0715) (0.0834) (0.0971) (0.112) (0.101) (0.403) (0.108) (0.108) (0.103) (0.141)
Age 1.827 2.455 -2.321 1.316 -0.133 2.069 -0.914 2.882 3.613 -2.856 -0.667 -1.532
  (1.579) (5.560) (2.335) (2.307) (2.544) (2.480) (2.050) (5.708) (2.620) (2.686) (2.999) (4.209)
Age squared -0.744 -1.354 1.320 -0.564 0.391 -0.770 0.306 -1.537 -1.926 1.302 0.0792 0.486
  (0.796) (2.779) (1.167) (1.188) (1.322) (1.301) (1.052) (2.875) (1.350) (1.403) (1.578) (2.185)
Marriage -0.0837 -0.0822 -0.0692 -0.0910 0.0351 -0.0201 0.157* 0.176 0.0801 0.219** -0.0147 0.152
  (0.0676) (0.189) (0.0769) (0.0858) (0.0959) (0.0796) (0.0845) (0.174) (0.0829) (0.0963) (0.101) (0.128)
High-skill blue-collarb 0.00825 0.0172 0.0163 0.0106 -0.00537 0.00937 0.00207 -0.00549 -0.00555 0.00650 0.00339 0.00408
  (0.00649) (0.0247) (0.0114) (0.00980) (0.00904) (0.00910) (0.00567) (0.0173) (0.00842) (0.00810) (0.00611) (0.00832)
Low-skill white-collar 0.0196 0.0366 0.00914 0.0212 0.00377 0.0172 -0.0550 -0.0614 -0.0707 -0.0686 -0.0542 -0.0113
  (0.0264) (0.0859) (0.0274) (0.0393) (0.0421) (0.0529) (0.0391) (0.108) (0.0478) (0.0489) (0.0486) (0.0650)
High-skill white-collar 0.0423 0.188 0.108 0.0632 -0.215** -0.161* -0.136 -0.310 -0.268** -0.120 0.178 0.0177
  (0.0775) (0.205) (0.0702) (0.120) (0.0955) (0.0937) (0.105) (0.258) (0.117) (0.151) (0.109) (0.162)
Miningc 0.0340*** 0.0762*** 0.0465*** 0.0344*** 0.0171*** -0.00882* 0.000626 0.00396 -0.00321 -0.00171 0.00193 0.00359
  (0.00399) (0.0189) (0.00642) (0.00546) (0.00622) (0.00490) (0.00156) (0.00481) (0.00207) (0.00259) (0.00246) (0.00300)
Manufacturing 0.0139 0.0818 0.0487*** 0.00945 -0.0118 -0.0109 0.0191 0.0527 -0.0278 0.00602 0.0117 0.0309
  (0.00979) (0.0580) (0.0171) (0.0141) (0.0168) (0.0126) (0.0155) (0.0598) (0.0184) (0.0166) (0.0194) (0.0217)
Utilities 0.0282*** 0.0938*** 0.0454*** 0.0271*** -0.00568 -0.0112 -0.000485 0.00164 -0.00363 0.000740 -0.00253 -0.00902
  (0.00594) (0.0261) (0.00915) (0.00755) (0.00661) (0.00748) (0.00255) (0.00738) (0.00294) (0.00314) (0.00360) (0.00903)
Construction 0.0710*** 0.213*** 0.0909*** 0.0506*** 0.00938 -0.00316 0.00265 0.00444 0.00196 0.000663 0.00237 -0.00546
  (0.0105) (0.0477) (0.0170) (0.0114) (0.00996) (0.0112) (0.00220) (0.00547) (0.00248) (0.00193) (0.00240) (0.00803)
Trade -0.0214 0.0778 0.0460* -0.0489** -0.0321 -0.0578* 0.0658** 0.0814 0.00141 0.0613** 0.0479 0.0934**
  (0.0162) (0.0807) (0.0260) (0.0238) (0.0308) (0.0328) (0.0258) (0.0937) (0.0321) (0.0288) (0.0350) (0.0450)
Hotels and restaurants -0.0152** -0.0223 -0.00809 -0.00747 -0.00901 -0.00960 0.0119 0.0203 0.00429 0.00900 0.0117 0.0165
  (0.00677) (0.0227) (0.00620) (0.00706) (0.0123) (0.00971) (0.00939) (0.0270) (0.0111) (0.0113) (0.0144) (0.0119)
Transport 0.0358*** 0.105*** 0.0701*** 0.0282** -0.0137 -0.00811 0.00958 0.0197 -0.00272 0.0175* 0.0173* -0.0279
  (0.00850) (0.0376) (0.0151) (0.0125) (0.0109) (0.0108) (0.00789) (0.0236) (0.00878) (0.00908) (0.00985) (0.0204)
Finance 0.0103** 0.0431*** 0.0205*** -0.000687 0.00177 0.00161 0.00223 0.0201 0.00810 0.00632 -0.00265 -0.0114
  (0.00402) (0.0149) (0.00706) (0.00757) (0.00712) (0.0107) (0.00668) (0.0166) (0.00677) (0.00616) (0.00872) (0.0134)
Real estate 0.0123*** 0.0641*** 0.0237*** 0.00126 0.000269 -0.00478 0.0116** 0.0229 0.00739 0.00848 0.00542 0.0208
  (0.00419) (0.0207) (0.00885) (0.00674) (0.00626) (0.00688) (0.00562) (0.0158) (0.00645) (0.00628) (0.00818) (0.0127)
Public adm and defense 0.0967*** 0.225** 0.142*** 0.133*** 0.0843*** 0.00274 0.0164 0.0675 0.00165 0.0114 0.00743 -0.0860*
  (0.0185) (0.0876) (0.0336) (0.0299) (0.0306) (0.0388) (0.0208) (0.0680) (0.0251) (0.0269) (0.0314) (0.0441)
Education -0.0565 -0.234 -0.0695 0.00307 0.143 0.162** 0.0181 0.160 0.00605 -0.0265 -0.136 -0.0985
  (0.0544) (0.209) (0.0497) (0.0689) (0.100) (0.0695) (0.0720) (0.245) (0.0845) (0.0863) (0.108) (0.113)
Health and social work -0.0337 -0.0733 -0.0236 -0.0355 0.00915 0.0406 0.0281 0.0603 -0.00893 0.0245 -0.00744 0.0374
  (0.0245) (0.0914) (0.0242) (0.0316) (0.0371) (0.0320) (0.0304) (0.106) (0.0370) (0.0374) (0.0405) (0.0532)
Culture -0.0196* -0.0260 -0.00651 -0.0146 0.00302 -0.0111 0.0327* 0.0817 0.0212 0.0221 0.00165 0.0257
  (0.0118) (0.0528) (0.0121) (0.0174) (0.0196) (0.0187) (0.0169) (0.0593) (0.0198) (0.0224) (0.0232) (0.0296)
Private households -0.0215 -0.0151 -0.0163 -0.0228** -0.0304 0.00925 0.0189 0.00907 0.00578 0.0201 0.0275 0.0177
  (0.0141) (0.0474) (0.0110) (0.0112) (0.0198) (0.00634) (0.0172) (0.0539) (0.0156) (0.0143) (0.0209) (0.0128)
International org -0.00222* 0.000846 0.000317 -0.00130* -0.00362 -0.00574 0.00128 0.000513 0.00103 0.00195 0.00361 9.75e-06
  (0.00116) (0.00186) (0.000814) (0.000765) (0.00283) (0.00409) (0.00223) (0.00234) (0.00168) (0.00173) (0.00402) (0.00711)
State 0.0399 0.167 0.0618 -0.0296 -0.0703 -0.153 -0.0431 -0.0883 -0.104 -0.0381 0.0784 0.246*
  (0.0656) (0.132) (0.0512) (0.0907) (0.112) (0.113) (0.0787) (0.145) (0.0671) (0.108) (0.126) (0.141)
Urban 0.104 0.317 0.00973 0.0426 0.00949 -0.163** -0.0796 -0.110 0.0358 0.0151 0.0197 0.0428
  (0.136) (0.483) (0.0918) (0.0964) (0.0938) (0.0813) (0.151) (0.517) (0.0995) (0.109) (0.106) (0.114)
Tbilisi -0.0116 -0.129 0.0486 0.0280 0.0267 0.0194 -0.0470 0.0628 -0.0798 -0.102* -0.00123 -0.195*
  (0.0455) (0.110) (0.0418) (0.0495) (0.0607) (0.0736) (0.0551) (0.113) (0.0497) (0.0616) (0.0696) (0.106)
Georgian 0.130 0.183 -0.0426 0.0397 0.318 0.239 -0.113 -0.369 0.00992 0.0930 -0.158 -0.201
  (0.110) (0.387) (0.122) (0.174) (0.210) (0.206) (0.135) (0.391) (0.139) (0.171) (0.219) (0.247)
21 – 40 hoursd -0.0636 -0.0124 0.0580 0.123 -0.125* -0.0453 0.135 0.636* 0.0935 -0.0841 0.0760 -0.0959
  (0.0905) (0.389) (0.0710) (0.0777) (0.0646) (0.0506) (0.110) (0.374) (0.0978) (0.0846) (0.0779) (0.0841)
40 + hours 0.0650 0.358 0.193*** 0.189*** -0.0736 -0.00686 0.0769 0.448* 0.0219 -0.0710 0.0786 -0.0873
  (0.0593) (0.324) (0.0624) (0.0596) (0.0583) (0.0517) (0.0714) (0.254) (0.0633) (0.0572) (0.0624) (0.0769)
Seasonal hours 0.0182*** 0.0734** 0.0280*** 0.0266*** 0.00139 0.00309 0.00274 0.00299 -0.00123 -0.00879 -0.00305 -0.00567
  (0.00662) (0.0354) (0.01000) (0.00738) (0.00729) (0.00626) (0.00724) (0.0267) (0.00666) (0.00598) (0.00721) (0.00741)
Constant -1.277* -2.088 0.135 -1.086 -0.465 -1.321 0.750 -2.749 -1.107 1.916 1.232 1.879
  (0.757) (2.985) (1.240) (1.090) (1.236) (1.197) (0.965) (2.870) (1.284) (1.306) (1.433) (2.037)
Residual 0.0155 0.0179 0.00151 0.0563 0.0124 0.0666 -0.0155 0.0135 -0.0441 -0.0689 -0.0316 -0.0454
  (0.0501) (0.132) (0.0476) (0.041) (0.0649) (0.0474) (0.0538) (0.114) (0.0439) (0.045) (0.0621) (0.0639)
Diff 0.2203*** 0.2846 0.0337 0.2877*** 0.2074*** 0.1691*** 0.2227*** 0.0375 0.2877*** 0.2400*** 0.4425*** 0.1792**
  (0.0671) (0.1886 (0.0542) (0.0723) (0.0640) (0.0554) (0.0735) (0.1957) (0.0255) (0.0836) (0.0851) (0.0877)
Total 0.4431*** 0.3221*** 0.3213*** 0.5276*** 0.6498*** 0.3483***       
  (0.0252) (0.1074 (0.0585) (0.0695) (0.0489) (0.0856)       
  1. Notes: bootstrapped standard errors (200 replications, clustered by household); quarterly dummy variables included, but not reported; coefficient sums do not add up to the totals because quarterly dummies are omitted; *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1; a secondary education or below is the reference group; b low-skill blue-collar occupations is the reference group; c agriculture is the reference group; d 20 hours or less is the reference group
  2. Source: GHBS data