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Table 4 Decomposition of the gender wage gap at selected quantiles, 2007

From: Two tales of contraction: gender wage gap in Georgia before and after the 2008 crisis

Variables Composition Structure
mean 10th 25th 50th 75th 90th mean 10th 25th 50th 75th 90th
Vocationala -0.0269 0.0150 0.0471 -0.0598 -0.0475 -0.0352 0.0274 -0.0326 -0.00857 0.0587 0.0513 0.0177
  (0.0223) (0.0420) (0.0457) (0.0422) (0.0437) (0.0470) (0.0341) (0.0667) (0.0560) (0.0500) (0.0525) (0.0587)
Higher education -0.0692 0.147 0.0686 -0.131 -0.0366 -0.185* -0.144 -0.459*** -0.214 0.0362 -0.219 -0.120
  (0.0599) (0.109) (0.118) (0.106) (0.110) (0.0987) (0.0914) (0.171) (0.153) (0.127) (0.139) (0.158)
Age -1.860 -3.785 -4.741 -4.496 4.209 -0.997 4.147* 6.572* 5.832 5.361 0.322 1.242
  (1.762) (2.957) (3.800) (3.237) (3.181) (2.605) (2.333) (3.699) (4.046) (3.618) (3.855) (3.731)
Age squared 1.146 2.030 2.669 2.582 -2.011 0.689 -2.435** -3.831* -3.420 -3.014 -0.228 -0.815
  (0.943) (1.611) (1.991) (1.701) (1.668) (1.367) (1.233) (2.019) (2.124) (1.907) (2.020) (1.929)
Marriage -0.0147 0.179 -0.104 0.0525 -0.108 0.134 0.100 -0.0421 0.190* 0.00387 0.0810 -0.0383
  (0.0556) (0.125) (0.114) (0.106) (0.0922) (0.0993) (0.0649) (0.129) (0.110) (0.102) (0.0965) (0.0965)
High-skill blue-collarb 0.0244** 0.0482** 0.0524*** 0.0228 0.00811 -0.00778 0.00712 -0.0157 -0.00277 0.0134 0.0173* 0.0132
  (0.0102) (0.0241) (0.0193) (0.0184) (0.0157) (0.0186) (0.00658) (0.0207) (0.0113) (0.00860) (0.0103) (0.0121)
Low-skill white-collar -0.0310 -0.0660 -0.0741* -0.0977** 0.0229 0.0460 -0.0145 0.0647 -0.0265 0.0321 -0.0604 -0.0594
  (0.0224) (0.0560) (0.0411) (0.0387) (0.0465) (0.0400) (0.0390) (0.0976) (0.0585) (0.0503) (0.0602) (0.0670)
High-skill white-collar -0.0732 -0.278 -0.0895 -0.0549 -0.233 -0.0625 0.000817 0.151 -0.232 0.0380 0.241 0.0263
  (0.0815) (0.195) (0.137) (0.135) (0.185) (0.132) (0.120) (0.353) (0.187) (0.164) (0.203) (0.187)
Miningc 0.00781*** 0.00846*** 0.00750*** 0.00907*** 0.00747* 0.0116* 0.000552*** -0.000422 -0.000400 0.000559** 0.00100*** 0.00159***
  (0.00201) (0.00257) (0.00288) (0.00308) (0.00393) (0.00639) (0.000167) (0.000465) (0.000384) (0.000281) (0.000371) (0.000601)
Manufacturing 0.0225** 0.0227 0.0264 0.0492*** 0.000308 -0.0158 0.0137 0.0168 0.0132 0.0127 0.00885 0.0201
  (0.0101) (0.0315) (0.0261) (0.0188) (0.0167) (0.0182) (0.00908) (0.0235) (0.0178) (0.0139) (0.0139) (0.0181)
Utilities 0.00740* 0.00487 0.00480 0.00851 0.00439 0.00954 0.00390* 0.00275 0.00266 -0.00134 0.00242 0.00921**
  (0.00389) (0.00989) (0.00668) (0.00582) (0.00611) (0.00794) (0.00230) (0.00421) (0.00348) (0.00324) (0.00456) (0.00398)
Construction 0.0586*** 0.0637** 0.0602** 0.0778*** 0.0367** 0.0367* 0.00127 -0.00127 0.00620 0.000567 -0.000519 0.00480
  (0.0122) (0.0290) (0.0236) (0.0197) (0.0174) (0.0214) (0.00525) (0.00926) (0.00813) (0.00616) (0.00703) (0.0119)
Trade 0.0147 -0.00465 0.0146 0.0670** 0.000638 -0.0621** 0.0476 -0.00749 0.0456 0.0238 0.0675 0.0942
  (0.0171) (0.0327) (0.0330) (0.0334) (0.0340) (0.0306) (0.0293) (0.0664) (0.0517) (0.0433) (0.0528) (0.0600)
Hotels and restaurants 0.00193 0.00164 -0.00351 0.0127 -0.0168 0.00250 -0.00352 -0.0106 0.000885 -0.00606 0.000365 -0.00883
  (0.00541) (0.00899) (0.00915) (0.00967) (0.0120) (0.00884) (0.00835) (0.0154) (0.0134) (0.0127) (0.0160) (0.0155)
Transport 0.0307*** 0.0563** 0.0326* 0.0452*** 0.0131 -0.00432 -0.00886 -0.00812 -0.00390 -0.00945 -0.0114 -0.0110
  (0.00853) (0.0226) (0.0184) (0.0134) (0.0124) (0.0131) (0.00731) (0.0127) (0.00951) (0.00776) (0.00950) (0.0188)
Finance 0.00263 0.00295 0.00875 0.0181** -0.00321 -0.0181 -0.00671 0.00598 0.00282 -0.00983 -0.0148 -0.0363
  (0.00501) (0.00904) (0.0115) (0.00922) (0.0119) (0.0150) (0.0118) (0.0189) (0.0165) (0.0114) (0.0144) (0.0295)
Real estate 0.00784 0.0128 0.00906 0.0215* -0.00389 -0.00546 0.0256** 0.0218 0.0400** 0.0212 0.0120 0.0164
  (0.00575) (0.0136) (0.0129) (0.0128) (0.0173) (0.0132) (0.0113) (0.0242) (0.0184) (0.0146) (0.0195) (0.0244)
Public adm and defense 0.0483*** 0.0519 0.0322 0.0756*** 0.0612** -0.0160 0.0224 0.0316 0.0323 0.00678 -0.0105 0.0290
  (0.0124) (0.0344) (0.0280) (0.0246) (0.0303) (0.0308) (0.0146) (0.0325) (0.0224) (0.0200) (0.0283) (0.0400)
Education 0.0373 -0.0912 -0.0465 0.109 0.161** 0.0357 0.143** 0.192 0.202 0.0772 0.0380 0.163
  (0.0418) (0.0956) (0.0947) (0.0851) (0.0774) (0.0656) (0.0622) (0.177) (0.131) (0.112) (0.109) (0.111)
Health & social work 0.0801*** 0.0180 0.0715 0.0809 0.109** 0.0963** -0.00158 0.0688 0.0161 0.00631 -0.0847 -0.0544
  (0.0310) (0.0570) (0.0609) (0.0528) (0.0496) (0.0446) (0.0418) (0.108) (0.0779) (0.0629) (0.0626) (0.0698)
Culture 0.00356 -0.0105 0.0139 -0.00158 0.00810 0.00259 0.00401 0.00910 0.00756 0.00818 -0.0214 -0.00951
  (0.00616) (0.0155) (0.0150) (0.0146) (0.0148) (0.0122) (0.0105) (0.0239) (0.0206) (0.0173) (0.0203) (0.0171)
Private households 0.00631 0.00469 -0.000129 0.0238* 0.0129* 0.00120 -4.35e-05 -0.00394 0.00819 -0.0166 -0.0183 0.00818
  (0.00566) (0.00759) (0.00778) (0.0135) (0.00762) (0.00531) (0.00699) (0.0134) (0.0105) (0.0139) (0.0118) (0.00811)
International org 0.00133* -0.000304 0.00130 -0.00103 0.00301* 0.00126 -0.00111 0.00443 0.00142 0.00167 -0.00323 -0.00531
  (0.000762) (0.000767) (0.000888) (0.00217) (0.00179) (0.000943) (0.00253) (0.00451) (0.00216) (0.00261) (0.00234) (0.00365)
State 0.0613 0.116 0.180 0.0852 -0.0179 -0.0527 -0.0141 -0.153 -0.0662 0.0210 0.0447 0.0759
  (0.0573) (0.104) (0.122) (0.106) (0.110) (0.0848) (0.0851) (0.140) (0.145) (0.125) (0.134) (0.135)
Urban 0.0319 0.478*** 0.133 -0.0262 -0.136 -0.0357 0.0532 -0.368* -0.0109 0.197 0.146 0.0982
  (0.0748) (0.170) (0.193) (0.147) (0.0953) (0.103) (0.0930) (0.191) (0.204) (0.153) (0.107) (0.131)
Tbilisi -0.0835* -0.0986 -0.0198 -0.147* -0.0881 -0.0929 0.0877 0.165* 0.0167 0.113 0.0801 -0.0167
  (0.0458) (0.0819) (0.0970) (0.0838) (0.0781) (0.0847) (0.0607) (0.0969) (0.106) (0.0964) (0.0915) (0.109)
Georgian 0.183 0.0552 0.427* 0.441** 0.120 0.174 -0.0439 -0.170 -0.210 -0.238 0.0644 0.0226
  (0.114) (0.192) (0.230) (0.212) (0.166) (0.143) (0.126) (0.218) (0.258) (0.209) (0.186) (0.179)
21 – 40 hoursd -0.0766* 0.0828 -0.173 -0.160** -0.0820 -0.0475 0.0527 -0.0533 0.250 0.108 -0.0101 -0.0205
  (0.0442) (0.177) (0.135) (0.0747) (0.0517) (0.0534) (0.0664) (0.214) (0.161) (0.0817) (0.0651) (0.0606)
40 + hours 0.0902** 0.591*** 0.131 -0.00307 -0.156* -0.187** 0.0701 -0.0793 0.202 0.125 0.0939 0.0705
  (0.0444) (0.210) (0.118) (0.0835) (0.0927) (0.0948) (0.0578) (0.195) (0.148) (0.0792) (0.0885) (0.0842)
Seasonal hours 0.0363*** 0.0874*** 0.0451*** 0.0307*** 0.0138 0.000465 0.00484 0.00408 0.0153* 0.00341 0.000788 0.000823
  (0.00732) (0.0240) (0.0130) (0.00978) (0.00851) (0.00977) (0.00341) (0.00938) (0.00842) (0.00513) (0.00473) (0.00346)
Constant 0.656 0.585 1.637 1.743 -1.583 1.002 -1.885* -1.680 -2.470 -2.786 -0.194 -0.525
  (0.824) (1.461) (1.917) (1.573) (1.566) (1.257) (1.140) (1.770) (2.020) (1.768) (1.920) (1.831)
Residual 0.0716 -0.00996 0.0546 0.0559 0.130* 0.0816 -0.0716 0.00695 -0.0666 -0.0786 -0.0961 -0.0814
  (0.0591) (0.0708) (0.0897) (0.0878) (0.0727) (0.0900) (0.0612) (0.0688) (0.0895) (0.0885) (0.082) (0.0971)
Diff 0.3634*** 0.3431*** 0.4055*** 0.3857*** 0.3497*** 0.3362*** 0.2650*** 0.3500*** 0.1899 0.2280* 0.3434 0.1893*
  (0.0451) (0.0831) (0.1111) (0.1139) (0.0850) (0.0872) (0.0497) (0.0971) (0.1208) (0.1207) (0.0984) (0.1077)
Total 0.6284*** 0.6931*** 0.5953*** 0.6137*** 0.6931*** 0.5254***       
  (0.0275) (0.0500) (0.0583) (0.0616) (0.0488) (0.0840)       
  1. Notes: bootstrapped standard errors (200 replications, clustered by household); quarterly dummy variables included, but not reported; coefficient sums do not add up to the totals because quarterly dummies are omitted; *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1; a secondary education or below is the reference group; b low-skill blue-collar occupations is the reference group; c agriculture is the reference group; d 20 hours or less is the reference group
  2. Source: GHBS data