Skip to main content

Table 3 Decomposition of the gender wage gap at selected quantiles, 2004

From: Two tales of contraction: gender wage gap in Georgia before and after the 2008 crisis

Variables Composition Structure
Mean 10th 25th 50th 75th 90th Mean 10th 25th 50th 75th 90th
Vocationala 0.0278 0.0145 0.0104 0.0250 0.103* 0.0608 −0.0151 −0.0360 0.00596 −0.00163 −0.0819 −0.0260
(0.0195) (0.0416) (0.0343) (0.0302) (0.0544) (0.0640) (0.0261) (0.0479) (0.0432) (0.0388) (0.0602) (0.0741)
Higher education 0.0100 −0.171 −0.0643 0.0774 0.234* 0.00967 −0.108 −0.00892 −0.109 −0.172* −0.258* 0.0336
(0.0547) (0.139) (0.112) (0.0769) (0.119) (0.169) (0.0782) (0.167) (0.127) (0.101) (0.147) (0.203)
Age −0.492 −4.420 −5.144 −3.614 1.522 4.844 −0.660 0.826 2.653 2.292 −2.392 −5.355
(1.631) (4.022) (3.639) (2.475) (2.557) (4.777) (2.012) (4.440) (3.937) (2.821) (3.214) (5.448)
Age-squared 0.248 2.152 2.632 1.800 −0.722 −2.315 0.139 −0.694 −1.480 −1.233 0.965 2.424
(0.841) (2.154) (1.917) (1.252) (1.318) (2.378) (1.042) (2.347) (2.085) (1.451) (1.651) (2.733)
Marriage 0.118** 0.225** 0.241** 0.220*** 0.134 −0.101 0.00214 −0.137 −0.177* −0.0789 0.0932 0.238
(0.0554) (0.107) (0.0950) (0.0794) (0.0966) (0.171) (0.0659) (0.107) (0.108) (0.0800) (0.114) (0.184)
High-skill blue-collarb −0.00432 0.0115 −0.00661 −0.000288 −0.0212 −0.00235 0.00304 0.0125 0.00526 0.00248 −0.00127 −0.00797
(0.0110) (0.0227) (0.0183) (0.0167) (0.0139) (0.0186) (0.00694) (0.0163) (0.0129) (0.00928) (0.0113) (0.0128)
Low-skill white-collar −0.0481*** −0.0760 −0.149*** 0.000212 −0.0176 −0.0352 0.0189 0.0720 0.0954** −0.0338 −0.0236 0.0290
(0.0170) (0.0603) (0.0425) (0.0228) (0.0346) (0.0430) (0.0260) (0.0723) (0.0483) (0.0341) (0.0477) (0.0608)
High-skill white-collar −0.219*** −0.333 −0.398*** −0.108 −0.250** 0.0193 0.167* 0.326 0.308* 0.120 0.0850 −0.158
(0.0604) (0.211) (0.130) (0.0777) (0.111) (0.136) (0.0952) (0.264) (0.167) (0.111) (0.140) (0.190)
Miningc 0.0102*** 0.0126*** 0.00747*** 0.0107*** 0.00745** 0.0102* 0 0 0 0 0 0
(0.00204) (0.00300) (0.00205) (0.00221) (0.00329) (0.00546) (0) (0) (0) (0) (0) (0)
Manufacturing −0.00210 0.0126 −0.0302 0.0150 −0.0138 0.0122 0.0502*** 0.112*** 0.0747*** 0.0305 0.0446* 0.0106
(0.0121) (0.0430) (0.0211) (0.0172) (0.0166) (0.0167) (0.0148) (0.0346) (0.0236) (0.0187) (0.0236) (0.0239)
Utilities 0.0186*** 0.0509*** 0.0129 0.0182* 0.00229 0.00908 0.000933 0.0170*** 0.00961** 0.000435 −0.00354 −0.00846
(0.00654) (0.0181) (0.00925) (0.00950) (0.00816) (0.0107) (0.00287) (0.00564) (0.00431) (0.00345) (0.00493) (0.00824)
Construction 0.0427*** 0.0745*** 0.0340*** 0.0482*** 0.0330*** 0.0237* 0.000160 0.00221*** 0.00166*** 0.000257 6.65e−05 −0.00136
(0.00821) (0.0203) (0.0119) (0.0111) (0.00992) (0.0129) (0.000521) (0.000704) (0.000567) (0.000484) (0.000704) (0.00152)
Trade −0.0377** −0.0779 −0.0755** −0.0118 −0.0332 0.00397 0.0853*** 0.187*** 0.129*** 0.0634* 0.0702* 0.00879
(0.0162) (0.0542) (0.0323) (0.0213) (0.0254) (0.0340) (0.0239) (0.0593) (0.0426) (0.0326) (0.0407) (0.0451)
Hotels and restaurants −0.0247*** −0.0424*** −0.0339*** −0.0249*** −0.0263** −0.000341 0.0301*** 0.0522*** 0.0355*** 0.0322*** 0.0346** 0.00452
(0.00488) (0.0156) (0.00970) (0.00672) (0.0123) (0.0159) (0.00777) (0.0172) (0.0120) (0.00998) (0.0163) (0.0232)
Transport 0.0182* 0.0328 −0.000949 0.0405*** 0.0139 0.00844 0.0418*** 0.0763*** 0.0546*** 0.0332*** 0.0278* 0.0222*
(0.00942) (0.0318) (0.0158) (0.0136) (0.0114) (0.0115) (0.00941) (0.0232) (0.0163) (0.0124) (0.0166) (0.0132)
Finance −0.00576 −0.00474 −0.00880 0.000706 −0.00737 0.000871 0.00922 0.0206 0.0147 0.00648 0.0102 −0.00350
(0.00579) (0.0153) (0.00917) (0.00531) (0.00797) (0.0125) (0.00853) (0.0191) (0.0121) (0.00814) (0.0127) (0.0195)
Real estate −0.00815 −0.0139 −0.0279** −0.00218 −0.0133 0.00741 0.0348*** 0.0828*** 0.0524*** 0.0283** 0.0295* −0.0111
(0.00654) (0.0213) (0.0135) (0.00841) (0.0133) (0.0121) (0.0105) (0.0254) (0.0180) (0.0128) (0.0175) (0.0186)
Public adm and defense 0.0121 0.0323 −1.23e−05 −0.00609 −0.00704 0.0385 0.0571*** 0.163*** 0.0753* 0.0186 0.0327 0.00977
(0.0173) (0.0618) (0.0335) (0.0260) (0.0225) (0.0237) (0.0216) (0.0538) (0.0407) (0.0266) (0.0307) (0.0301)
Education −0.128** −0.453*** −0.160 −0.0422 −0.0675 0.0189 0.210*** 0.593*** 0.172 0.0627 0.193* 0.0488
(0.0516) (0.170) (0.114) (0.0527) (0.0715) (0.0876) (0.0768) (0.195) (0.138) (0.0957) (0.112) (0.127)
Health and social work −0.0486** −0.139** −0.0707 −0.0365 −0.00758 0.0103 0.103*** 0.216*** 0.123** 0.0714* 0.0593 0.0310
(0.0247) (0.0656) (0.0445) (0.0263) (0.0271) (0.0267) (0.0333) (0.0759) (0.0535) (0.0409) (0.0435) (0.0485)
Culture −0.0121 −0.0374 −0.0645*** 0.000609 −0.00318 0.00497 0.0365*** 0.0936*** 0.0819*** 0.0207 0.0142 0.00192
(0.00878) (0.0291) (0.0187) (0.0104) (0.0118) (0.0169) (0.0131) (0.0320) (0.0234) (0.0160) (0.0203) (0.0236)
Private households −0.00859** −0.0283** −0.0305** 0.00423 0.00300 0.00438 0.00795* 0.0286** 0.0321** −0.00536 −0.00379 −0.00642
(0.00423) (0.0140) (0.0136) (0.00391) (0.00306) (0.00337) (0.00469) (0.0144) (0.0143) (0.00544) (0.00596) (0.00645)
International org 0.00497 0.00565* 0.00153 0.00602*** 0.00329 0.000102 0.00377** 0.00357* 0.00159 0.00146 0.00495*** 0.00411
(0.00365) (0.00324) (0.00193) (0.00177) (0.00426) (0.00893) (0.00191) (0.00188) (0.00140) (0.00144) (0.00171) (0.00498)
State 0.109* 0.0820 −0.0726 0.0349 0.251* 0.153 −0.0419 −0.286** 0.120 0.107 −0.0520 0.0798
(0.0634) (0.115) (0.156) (0.0835) (0.146) (0.159) (0.0783) (0.141) (0.175) (0.0971) (0.147) (0.201)
Urban 0.0574 0.146 0.128 0.0324 −0.0359 0.0145 0.0218 −0.0289 0.0235 −0.00899 0.0897 0.0535
(0.0606) (0.145) (0.128) (0.0977) (0.0841) (0.0873) (0.0743) (0.192) (0.143) (0.113) (0.0924) (0.108)
Tbilisi −0.0321 0.0598 0.00196 −0.0314 −0.0501 −0.0728 0.0618 −0.0284 0.0882 0.143** 0.0616 0.0345
(0.0389) (0.0786) (0.0721) (0.0566) (0.0792) (0.0780) (0.0476) (0.0973) (0.0818) (0.0670) (0.0824) (0.0912)
Georgian −0.0929 0.242 −0.168 −0.0815 −0.183* −0.125 0.0335 −0.185 0.252 0.185 0.0258 −0.148
(0.0808) (0.241) (0.199) (0.122) (0.0955) (0.146) (0.109) (0.274) (0.227) (0.141) (0.134) (0.170)
21–40 hd −0.131* −0.131 −0.188 −0.0885 −0.187** −0.181* 0.0265 −0.163 0.0161 0.0435 0.176* 0.127
(0.0717) (0.220) (0.196) (0.111) (0.0818) (0.0932) (0.105) (0.265) (0.219) (0.149) (0.105) (0.122)
40+ h 0.104*** 0.0976 0.0761 0.144** 0.0467 0.0240 −0.0204 −0.0305 0.0221 −0.0151 −0.0175 0.00120
(0.0374) (0.138) (0.0987) (0.0572) (0.0472) (0.0736) (0.0371) (0.0925) (0.0789) (0.0534) (0.0544) (0.0683)
Seasonal hours 0.0132** 0.0202 0.0196* 0.0131 0.00426 −0.0118 0.00311 0.00366 0.00286 0.00305 0.00424 0.00780
(0.00584) (0.0164) (0.0111) (0.00954) (0.00800) (0.00908) (0.00270) (0.00582) (0.00464) (0.00382) (0.00445) (0.00522)
Constant 0.635 2.661 3.674* 1.589 −0.672 −2.256 0.179 −0.894 −2.129 −1.056 1.384 2.888
(0.798) (1.897) (1.876) (1.241) (1.227) (2.241) (1.004) (2.152) (1.988) (1.401) (1.573) (2.520)
Residual −0.00466 −0.0171 0.0121 0.0159 −0.0322 −0.0143 0.00466 0.0181 0.00419 0.0093 0.0309 −0.0109
(0.0306) (0.0471) (0.0451) (0.0481) (0.0556) (0.0703) (0.0374) (0.0531) (0.0574) (0.0509) (0.0539) (0.0728)
Difference 0.2009*** 0.1622* 0.2492*** 0.1878*** 0.2054** 0.1823** 0.4352*** 0.2458** 0.4440*** 0.5054*** 0.4877*** 0.4474***
(0.0363) (0.0887) (0.0871) (0.0597) (0.1019) (0.0817) (0.0435) (0.1064) (0.0992) (0.0714) (0.1040) (0.1139)
Total 0.6361*** 0.4080*** 0.6931*** 0.6931*** 0.6931*** 0.6297***       
(0.0258) (0.0758) (0.0484) (0.0491) (0.0219) (0.0922)       
  1. Notes: bootstrapped standard errors (200 replications, clustered by household); quarterly dummy variables included, but not reported; coefficient sums do not add up to the totals because quarterly dummies are omitted
  2. Source: GHBS data
  3. *p < 0.1; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01
  4. aSecondary education or below is the reference group
  5. bLow-skill blue-collar occupations are the reference group
  6. cAgriculture is the reference group
  7. d20 h or less is the reference group