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Table 8 Correlation between risky behavior and socio-emotional skills (age 25 to 29)

From: The effects of youth training on risk behavior: the role of non-cognitive skills

  Smoke Alcohol Marijuana Any substance Fight Witness crime Victim
  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
CPS: leadership −0.010 −0.010 −0.011 −0.018 −0.013 0.003 0.015
  (0.027) (0.027) (0.022) (0.013) (0.026) (0.004) (0.027)
CPS: conflict beh. 0.010 0.010 −0.036 −0.024* −0.018 −0.009 0.003
  (0.025) (0.025) (0.024) (0.013) (0.025) (0.007) (0.028)
CPS: self-esteem −0.009 −0.009 −0.018 −0.008 −0.029 −0.007 −0.034
  (0.027) (0.027) (0.026) (0.011) (0.025) (0.008) (0.027)
CPS: relations −0.013 −0.013 −0.016 −0.022 −0.043* 0.004 0.013
  (0.028) (0.028) (0.027) (0.014) (0.025) (0.006) (0.026)
CPS: order 0.012 0.012 −0.042* −0.004 −0.002 −0.009 −0.030
  (0.023) (0.023) (0.023) (0.013) (0.023) (0.009) (0.028)
CPS: empathy −0.052** −0.052** −0.021 −0.008 −0.055** −0.007 −0.055**
  (0.026) (0.026) (0.021) (0.008) (0.023) (0.007) (0.029)
CPS: total −0.017 −0.017 −0.039* −0.022 −0.042* −0.006 −0.022
  (0.027) (0.027) (0.023) (0.014) (0.025) (0.007) (0.028)
Grit: consistency −0.063** −0.063** −0.036 −0.013 −0.052** −0.001 −0.023
  (0.027) (0.027) (0.025) (0.010) (0.025) (0.007) (0.028)
Grit: perseverance 0.035 0.035 −0.013 −0.012 0.017 −0.005 −0.008
  (0.026) (0.026) (0.025) (0.010) (0.026) (0.007) (0.026)
Grit: ambition 0.024 0.024 −0.004 −0.021* 0.015 −0.007 −0.016
  (0.027) (0.027) (0.025) (0.013) (0.029) (0.007) (0.027)
Grit: total −0.031 −0.031 −0.021 −0.018 −0.025 0.004 −0.015
  (0.027) (0.027) (0.026) (0.012) (0.026) (0.007) (0.027)
  1. Each coefficient of the table presents the estimates of a panel regression of a given risk behavior variable on each of the socio-emotional skill scores. Each regression includes fixed effects by individual and year. Robust standard errors are presented in parenthesis. The Social and Competence Personal Scale (CPS) is a non-cognitive test designed and tested by Brea (2010) and Ibarraran et al. (2012). It measures an individual’s socio-emotional skill in six basic competencies: leadership, behavior in situations of conflict, self-esteem, abilities to relate with others, order, and empathy and communication skills. It is composed of 44 questions, and each question has a scale of 0 to 3 describing personal competencies of the individual. It produces a general score and a specific score for each of the six dimensions. A higher CPS score is associated with a higher level of development in the social and personal competencies. The Grit Scale is a non-cognitive test designed by Duckworth et al. (2007). It measures determination and strength of mind through the dimensions of consistency of interests, persistency of effort, and ambition. It is composed of 13 questions. Higher scores on the Grit Scale are associated with higher levels of determination and motivation during long periods of time despite failure or adversity. Scores are presented in standard deviations to ease interpretation, i.e., the mean was subtracted to each observation and the result was divided by the standard deviation
  2. Estimates with *** are significant at the 1 %, those with ** are significant at the 5 %, and those with * are significant at the 10 %