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Table 4 Effects of the program on risk behavior (by type of socio-emotional skills)

From: The effects of youth training on risk behavior: the role of non-cognitive skills

  Smoke Casual alcohol High alcohol Marijuana Drug consumption
  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)
Panel A. Total effects
T × Post × CPS −0.013   −0.001   −0.072   −0.011   0.000  
  (0.030)   (0.041)   (0.094)   (0.015)   (0.011)  
T × Post × Grit   −0.024   −0.071*   −0.110   −0.009   0.010
   (0.033)   (0.041)   (0.090)   (0.015)   (0.010)
Obs. 968 968 968 968 338 338 965 965 968 968
R-square .0085 .012 .0022 .01 .042 .049 .0082 .012 .0036 .005
Panel B. Dynamic effects
T × 1st follow-up × CPS −0.002   −0.033   −0.034   −0.012   −0.014  
  (0.031)   (0.046)   (0.106)   (0.025)   (0.012)  
T × 2nd follow-up × CPS −0.034   0.039   −0.147   −0.009   0.016  
  (0.052)   (0.064)   (0.115)   (0.019)   (0.014)  
T × 1st follow-up × Grit   −0.025   −0.130***   −0.008   −0.002   −0.006
   (0.035)   (0.045)   (0.116)   (0.025)   (0.017)
T × 2nd follow-up × Grit   −0.021   −0.005   −0.230**   −0.018   0.026
   (0.048)   (0.054)   (0.106)   (0.019)   (0.017)
Obs. 968 968 968 968 338 338 965 965 968 968
R-square .019 .017 .0079 .02 .067 .082 .0082 .013 .013 .014
  Fights Witness of crime Victim of crime Summary index   
  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)   
Panel C. Total effects
T × Post × CPS −0.021   0.037   −0.076**   −0.089    
  (0.015)   (0.044)   (0.037)   (0.067)    
T × Post × Grit   −0.022   0.062   −0.017   −0.073   
   (0.016)   (0.047)   (0.035)   (0.075)   
Obs. 967 967 968 968 968 968 337 337   
R-square .0032 .0088 .033 .036 .036 .04 .013 .0087   
Panel D. Dynamic effects
T × 1st follow-up × CPS −0.031**   0.017   −0.068   −0.084    
  (0.015)   (0.055)   (0.049)   (0.086)   
T × 2nd follow-up × CPS −0.009   0.064   −0.084   −0.099   
  (0.026)   (0.065)   (0.053)   (0.099)   
T × 1st follow-up × Grit   −0.034*   0.081   −0.012   −0.009  
   (0.018)   (0.057)   (0.046)   (0.104)  
T × 2nd follow-up × Grit   −0.010   0.051   −0.011   −0.151  
   (0.025)   (0.067)   (0.054)   (0.102)  
Obs. 967 967 968 968 968 968 337 337  
R-square .0069 .013 .05 .047 .049 .051 .04 .031  
Controls for all panels          
Ind. FE Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Year FE Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Controls Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
  1. The controls include all the double interactions between variables. The summary index of risk behavior is an equally weighted average of the z-scores of its components (i.e., the eight measures of risk behavior). The z-scores are calculated by subtracting the control group mean and dividing by the control group standard deviation. Clustered standard errors at the individual level are presented in parentheses
  2. *Significant at the 10 %; **significant at the 5 %; ***significant at the 1 %