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Table 1 Summary statistics—firm attributes, 2000–2001 to 2010–2011

From: Moving out of the bottom of the economy? Constraints to firm transition in the Indian informal manufacturing sector

Variables Number Mean SD Min Max
Dependent variablea
 ENTYP 294,736 1.180350 0.473707 1 3
Financeb
 CAPSHOR 294,736 0.324626 0.468236 0 1
Firm capabilitiesc
 LINKAGE 294,736 0.276420 0.447228 0 1
 ASSISTANCE 294,736 0.004402 0.066202 0 1
 ACMAINT 294,736 0.038159 0.191581 0 1
 REGIS 294,736 0.110029 0.312927 0 1
Locational variablesd
 LOCATION 294,736 0.329175 0.469914 0 1
 URBAN 294,736 0.313830 0.366611 0 1
 TRANSPORT 294,736 0.820579 0.383705 0 1
 DISTANCE 294,736 254.7668 179.2991 0 1010
Infrastructure and human capital variablese
 ELEC 294,736 0.180913 0.384946 0 1
 SHSCSTPOP 294,736 0.241005 0.115686 0.026295 0.942542
 PRIMEDU 294,736 0.298052 0.063819 0.14919 1
 MIDGRADEDU 294,736 0.243946 0.094608 0.068002 0.964556
 ROADVILLG 281,606 0.663063 0.239142 0.129032 1
Other control variablesf
 STATUS 294,736 0.211609 0.408450 0 1
  1. We applied frequency weights provided by the NSSO to compute descriptive statistics. Source: our calculations, from NSSO unit-level data for 2000–2001, 2005–2006 and 2010–2011 and the 2001 Census of India
  2. aThe dependent variable ENTYP is an ordered categorical variable taking values 1 to 3 (1 = PHE, 2 = MHE and 3 = NHE) denoting the type of the firm
  3. bFinance variable: CAPSHOR takes the value 1 if the firm faces a constraint and 0 if it does not
  4. cVariables representing firm capabilities: LINKAGE is coded as 1 if the firms work for a contractor and 0 if they do not; ASSISTANCE takes the value 1 if the firms received any assistance from the training and towards marketing and 0 if they state that they did not receive any such assistance; ACMAINT assumes the value 1 if the firms maintain a regular account and 0 if not; and REGIS takes the value 1 if they have registered under any act and 0 if they did not
  5. dLocational variables: LOCATION takes the value 1 if the firms are located in urban areas and 0 if they are located in rural areas; URBAN is a district-level measure representing the level of urbanisation in the district as measured by the share of urban population in total population; TRANSPORT takes the value 1 if a national highway or a broad-gauge line passes through the district and 0 if neither of them passes through the district; and DISTANCE signifies the remoteness of the district as captured by the distance of the district from the state capital
  6. eHuman capital variables: ELEC takes the value 1 if it has access to electricity and 0 if it lacks access to it; SHSCSTPOP represents the proportion of SC/ST population in total population; PRIMEDU captures the proportion of individuals who are educated at the primary level or below; MIDGRADEDU stands for the proportion of individuals educated at the secondary level and above; and ROADVILLG represents the share of villages with paved approach road in total villages
  7. fOther control variables: STATUS takes the value 1 if the firm has been expanding and 0 if the firm has been stagnant or contracting