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Table 7 Effect of mother’s work status on household’s budget share on education (2SLS-FE)

From: Female labor force participation and child education in India: evidence from the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme

Variable Baseline land ≤ median
Budget share of total education expenditure Budget share of school fees, uniform, and private tuition Budget share of books and transport
(1) (2) (3)
Mother is working 0.038* 0.031* 0.007
  (0.023) (0.018) (0.012)
Other control variables Yes Yes Yes
Household fixed effects Yes Yes Yes
Observations 1998 2000 2010
Number of households 999 1000 1005
Weak identification stat (Kleibergen-Paap rk Wald F) 3.256 3.254 3.437
Stock-Yogo weak identification test critical values 5.45 (25 %) 5.45 (25 %) 5.45 (25 %)
Over-identification stat (Hansen J) 0.150 0.296 0.009
Over-identification p value 0.699 0.586 0.921
  1. Notes: Robust standard errors clustered at the household level in parentheses. Significant at *10, **5, and ***1 %. Additional control variables are as follows: average age of children in the school-going age (5–17 years), number of boys in school-going age, number of girls in school-going age, square of number of boys in school-going age, square of number of girls in school-going age, household income, household size, number of males in the age group 16–60, average age of household members, land owned by household in 2007 interacted with time, household’s asset (index) in 2007 interacted with time, time trends depending on whether the district is a NREGS phase 1 district, mandal level total night lights in 2006, and baseline enrolment rate in the district. Instruments are as mentioned in Table 5