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Table 10 Robustness checks for the effect of mother’s work status on child’s school enrolment (2SLS-FE)

From: Female labor force participation and child education in India: evidence from the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme

Variable Enrolment
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)
Mother is working 0.642*** 0.399*** 0.471*** 0.452*** 0.455*** 0.437*** 0.494*** 0.472*** 0.471***
  (0.166) (0.146) (0.139) (0.135) (0.137) (0.136) (0.151) (0.130) (0.138)
Number of schools in the mandal   Yes        
Father is working    Yes       
Asset quartiles     Yes      
Number of household members who migrated      Yes     
Maximum daily male wage rate in the community       Yes    
Maximum daily female wage rate in the community        Yes   
Number of NREGS social audits in mandal × time         Yes  
Number of household members aged above 60 years          Yes
Other control variables Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Child fixed effects Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Observations 6550 6550 6550 6550 6550 6182 6182 6550 6550
Number of children 3275 3275 3275 3275 3275 3091 3091 3275 3275
Weak identification stat (Kleibergen-Paap rk Wald F) 7.750 4.361 7.733 7.913 7.758 6.736 6.501 7.025 7.778
Stock-Yogo weak identification test critical values 6.40 (20 %) 5.45 (25 %) 6.40 (20 %) 6.40 (20 %) 6.40 (20 %) 6.40 (20 %) 6.40 (20 %) 6.40 (20 %) 6.40 (20 %)
Over-identification stat (Hansen J) 1.749 2.624 1.452 1.660 1.423 2.318 1.301 1.441 1.448
Over-identification p value 0.186 0.105 0.228 0.198 0.233 0.128 0.254 0.230 0.229
  1. Notes: Robust standard errors clustered at the child level in parentheses. Significant at *10, **5, and ***1 %. Additional control variables included are as follows: household income, time interacted with age dummies, time interacted with gender, household size, number of males in the age group 16–60, average age of household members, land owned by household in 2007 interacted with time, household’s asset (index) in 2007 interacted with time, time trends depending on whether the district is a NREGS phase 1 district, mandal level total night lights in 2006, and baseline enrolment rate in the district. The same set of instruments (lagged rainfall shock, lagged amount fund sanctioned in NREGS, and their interaction) is used for annual household income and mother’s working status