Skip to main content

Table 5 Coefficients and standard errors estimated with model from Equation (3) for the logarithm of individual earnings as the dependent variable by income quantile, Brazil, 2000 and 2010

From: Demographic changes, educational improvements, and earnings in Brazil and Mexico

Independent variables 2000 2010
Total 1 quantile (up to 25th percentile) 2 quantile (up to 50th percentile) 3 quantile (above 75th percentile) Total 1 quantile (up to 25th percentile) 2 quantile (up to 50th percentile) 3 quantile (above 75th percentile)
Age-education groups – reference: 15–24 years; less than primary completed
15–24 years; primary completed 0.1224 (0.0025) 0.0833 (0.0007) 0.0835 (0.0012) 0.0945 (0.0026) 0.1312 (0.0032) 0.2210 (0.0007) 0.0834 (0.0020) 0.0674 (0.0021)
15–24 years; secondary completed 0.5658 (0.0030) 0.4646 (0.0008) 0.4637 (0.0014) 0.5763 (0.0032) 0.4506 (0.0033) 0.4586 (0.0008) 0.2958 (0.0021) 0.3007 (0.0022)
15–24 years; university completed 1.3589 (0.0117) 1.1718 (0.0034) 1.3188 (0.0059) 1.4808 (0.0134) 0.9391 (0.0065) 0.7481 (0.0017) 0.7272 (0.0045) 0.9049 (0.0047)
25–34 years; less than primary completed 0.3425 (0.0023) 0.2754 (0.0006) 0.2868 (0.0011) 0.3199 (0.0024) 0.3028 (0.0034) 0.3290 (0.0008) 0.2046 (0.0021) 0.2192 (0.0022)
25–34 years; primary completed 0.6958 (0.0026) 0.5843 (0.0007) 0.6057 (0.0012) 0.6954 (0.0028) 0.5097 (0.0032) 0.5132 (0.0008) 0.3726 (0.0020) 0.3844 (0.0021)
25–34 years; secondary completed 1.1181 (0.0027) 0.9272 (0.0008) 1.0342 (0.0013) 1.1829 (0.0030) 0.7876 (0.0032) 0.6957 (0.0007) 0.5833 (0.0020) 0.7065 (0.0021)
25–34 years; university completed 1.8978 (0.0045) 1.6817 (0.0013) 1.8639 (0.0022) 2.0700 (0.0051) 1.5420 (0.0038) 1.2573 (0.0010) 1.3393 (0.0026) 1.5741 (0.0027)
35–49 years; less than primary completed 0.4903 (0.0022) 0.3412 (0.0006) 0.3966 (0.0010) 0.5089 (0.0023) 0.4184 (0.0032) 0.3860 (0.0007) 0.2747 (0.0020) 0.3301 (0.0020)
35–49 years; primary completed 0.9319 (0.0026) 0.7523 (0.0007) 0.8360 (0.0012) 0.9957 (0.0028) 0.7065 (0.0032) 0.6077 (0.0007) 0.5343 (0.0020) 0.6442 (0.0021)
35–49 years; secondary completed 1.4889 (0.0027) 1.2223 (0.0008) 1.3984 (0.0013) 1.6570 (0.0030) 1.0756 (0.0032) 0.8954 (0.0008) 0.8768 (0.0021) 1.0839 (0.0022)
35–49 years; university completed 2.3119 (0.0036) 2.0740 (0.0010) 2.2874 (0.0018) 2.5012 (0.0040) 1.9550 (0.0037) 1.6217 (0.0009) 1.7494 (0.0025) 2.0157 (0.0026)
50–64 years; less than primary completed 0.4640 (0.0025) 0.2628 (0.0006) 0.3441 (0.0011) 0.5167 (0.0026) 0.4466 (0.0033) 0.3602 (0.0008) 0.2757 (0.0021) 0.3709 (0.0021)
50–64 years; primary completed 1.0481 (0.0045) 0.7674 (0.0013) 0.9301 (0.0022) 1.1954 (0.0050) 0.7812 (0.0037) 0.6006 (0.0009) 0.5782 (0.0024) 0.7707 (0.0025)
50–64 years; secondary completed 1.6039 (0.0049) 1.2459 (0.0014) 1.5197 (0.0024) 1.8590 (0.0055) 1.2253 (0.0038) 0.9403 (0.0010) 1.0348 (0.0026) 1.3139 (0.0027)
50–64 years; university completed 2.4520 (0.0051) 2.1785 (0.0015) 2.4335 (0.0026) 2.6893 (0.0058) 2.1398 (0.0043) 1.7695 (0.0011) 1.9822 (0.0031) 2.3039 (0.0031)
Immigrant 0.0772 (0.0017) 0.0747 (0.0005) 0.0716 (0.0008) 0.0788 (0.0018) 0.1366 (0.0020) 0.0896 (0.0005) 0.1120 (0.0014) 0.1385 (0.0014)
Proportion of undergraduates 0.0157 (0.0002) 0.0135 (0.0000) 0.0163 (0.0001) 0.0171 (0.0002) 0.0077 (0.0001) 0.0020 (0.0000) 0.0067 (0.0001) 0.0107 (0.0001)
Urbanization rate 0.0059 (0.0000) 0.0075 (0.0000) 0.0061 (0.0000) 0.0051 (0.0001) 0.0052 (0.0000) 0.0064 (0.0000) 0.0047 (0.0000) 0.0035 (0.0000)
Unemployment rate 0.0061 (0.0002) 0.0080 (0.0000) 0.0068 (0.0001) 0.0056 (0.0002) −0.0149 (0.0002) −0.0220 (0.0000) −0.0106 (0.0001) −0.0087 (0.0001)
Regions – reference: Southeast (“Sudeste”)
North (“Norte”) −0.1088 (0.0023) −0.1452 (0.0006) −0.1289 (0.0011) −0.0598 (0.0024) −0.0097 (0.0021) −0.0233 (0.0005) −0.0393 (0.0014) −0.0034 (0.0015)
Northeast (“Nordeste”) −0.4521 (0.0015) −0.4601 (0.0004) −0.4536 (0.0007) −0.4238 (0.0017) −0.2243 (0.0016) −0.2302 (0.0004) −0.2084 (0.0012) −0.2163 (0.0012)
South (“Sul”) 0.0388 (0.0016) 0.0425 (0.0004) 0.0462 (0.0007) 0.0547 (0.0017) 0.0626 (0.0015) 0.0511 (0.0004) 0.0785 (0.0009) 0.0937 (0.0010)
Center-West (“Centro-Oeste”) −0.0113 (0.0021) −0.0386 (0.0006) −0.0222ns (0.0010) −0.0022ns (0.0022) 0.0682 (0.0018) 0.0232 (0.0005) 0.0466 (0.0012) 0.0873 (0.0013)
Constant 4.6868 (0.0032) 4.2149 (0.0008) 4.7075 (0.0014) 5.1224 (0.0033) 5.7699 (0.0054) 5.5021 (0.0012) 5.8945 (0.0033) 6.2193 (0.0034)
Number of observations 2,160,745 2,155,341
Adjusted R-squared 0.4602   0.4237  
Pseudo R-squared   0.2485 0.2742 0.2991   0.1712 0.2197 0.2582
  1. ns Non-significant. All other coefficients are significant at least at p < 0.01. Standard errors are reported in parentheses
  2. 1991, 2000, and 2010 Brazilian Demographic Censuses (IPUMS-International)