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Table 3 Exponential of coefficients estimated with area-time fixed-effects from Equation (1) for the logarithm of mean real monthly earnings from main occupation as the dependent variable, Brazil, 1970–2010

From: Demographic changes, educational improvements, and earnings in Brazil and Mexico

Age-education indicators 1970 1980 1991 2000 2010
15–24 years; less than primary completed (reference group) 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
15–24 years; primary completed 2.130 (0.028) 1.571 (0.019) 1.519 (0.019) 1.242 (0.015) 1.110 (0.014)
15–24 years; secondary completed 3.184 (0.050) 2.553 (0.034) 2.197 (0.028) 1.845 (0.023) 1.511 (0.019)
15–24 years; university completed 6.069 (0.203) 4.522 (0.109) 3.590 (0.090) 3.546 (0.077) 2.596 (0.043)
25–34 years; less than primary completed 1.438 (0.017) 1.584 (0.019) 1.470 (0.018) 1.504 (0.018) 1.337 (0.017)
25–34 years; primary completed 4.081 (0.061) 3.301 (0.042) 2.674 (0.033) 2.492 (0.031) 1.689 (0.021)
25–34 years; secondary completed 5.480 (0.087) 4.728 (0.062) 3.973 (0.050) 3.488 (0.043) 2.250 (0.028)
25–34 years; university completed 10.715 (0.202) 8.662 (0.131) 7.126 (0.110) 6.757 (0.101) 4.597 (0.060)
35–49 years; less than primary completed 1.707 (0.021) 1.952 (0.024) 1.866 (0.023) 1.882 (0.023) 1.548 (0.019)
35–49 years; primary completed 6.000 (0.100) 5.161 (0.072) 4.053 (0.053) 3.624 (0.045) 2.350 (0.029)
35–49 years; secondary completed 7.923 (0.138) 7.081 (0.102) 6.112 (0.081) 5.771 (0.071) 3.420 (0.042)
35–49 years; university completed 13.348 (0.259) 11.407 (0.185) 10.701 (0.161) 11.068 (0.155) 6.798 (0.088)
50–64 years; less than primary completed 1.702 (0.021) 1.916 (0.023) 1.816 (0.022) 1.987 (0.024) 1.630 (0.020)
50–64 years; primary completed 6.620 (0.135) 5.883 (0.100) 4.923 (0.083) 4.446 (0.061) 2.758 (0.035)
50–64 years; secondary completed 8.483 (0.203) 8.048 (0.148) 7.211 (0.125) 7.150 (0.101) 4.331 (0.055)
50–64 years; university completed 12.929 (0.312) 11.783 (0.249) 11.576 (0.223) 12.798 (0.206) 8.939 (0.124)
  1. All coefficients are significant at p < 0.01. The numbers in the first column are the exponential of coefficients related to the correlation between age-education groups and earnings for 1970 (main effects). The exponentials in the other columns take into account the 1970 main effects interacted with each additional year, using linear combinations of estimators in Stata (command “lincom”). Standard errors are reported in parentheses
  2. 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000, and 2010 Brazilian Demographic Censuses (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics – IBGE)