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Table 6 Means and standard deviations of monthly earnings and explanatory variables by formality status using three alternative informality measures: october 2008

From: Bound to lose, bound to win? The financial crisis and the informal-formal sector earnings gap in Serbia

  (1) Formally registered? (2) Has labor contract? (3) Receives pension benefits?
  Yes No Yes No Yes No
Ln Monthly earnings 10.067 9.204 10.102 9.456 10.108 9.482
  [0.528] [0.823] [0.496] [0.762] [0.493] [0.736]
Informality measure:       
Unregistered firm 0.000 1.000 0.002 0.311 0.002 0.273
  [0.000] [0.000] [0.046] [0.464] [0.046] [0.446]
No labor contract 0.069 0.94 0.000 1.000 0.002 0.863
  [0.253] [0.239] [0.000] [0.000] [0.045] [0.345]
No benefits 0.082 0.94 0.017 0.981 0.000 1.000
  [0.275] [0.239] [0.128] [0.135] [0.000] [0.000]
Age cohort:       
15–24 0.077 0.254 0.067 0.224 0.066 0.215
  [0.266] [0.438] [0.250] [0.418] [0.248] [0.411]
25–34 0.242 0.233 0.239 0.27 0.239 0.268
  [0.429] [0.425] [0.427] [0.445] [0.427] [0.444]
35–44 0.268 0.174 0.268 0.232 0.267 0.245
  [0.443] [0.381] [0.443] [0.423] [0.443] [0.431]
45–54 0.274 0.217 0.285 0.154 0.287 0.151
  [0.446] [0.414] [0.451] [0.361] [0.452] [0.359]
55–64 0.137 0.107 0.139 0.11 0.139 0.112
  [0.344] [0.311] [0.346] [0.313] [0.346] [0.316]
65+ 0.002 0.015 0.002 0.01 0.002 0.009
  [0.048] [0.123] [0.044] [0.100] [0.044] [0.094]
Educational attainment:       
Primary or less 0.143 0.556 0.123 0.461 0.124 0.415
  [0.350] [0.500] [0.329] [0.499] [0.330] [0.494]
Secondary 0.668 0.429 0.678 0.503 0.678 0.523
  [0.471] [0.498] [0.467] [0.501] [0.467] [0.500]
Tertiary 0.189 0.015 0.199 0.037 0.198 0.062
  [0.391] [0.123] [0.399] [0.188] [0.399] [0.241]
Part-time 0.02 0.313 0.013 0.182 0.011 0.183
  [0.141] [0.466] [0.115] [0.387] [0.104] [0.387]
Industry:       
Agriculture 0.045 0.402 0.035 0.252 0.035 0.227
  [0.206] [0.493] [0.184] [0.435] [0.183] [0.420]
Man/Min/Electricity 0.351 0.091 0.364 0.144 0.364 0.176
  [0.477] [0.290] [0.481] [0.351] [0.481] [0.381]
Construction 0.103 0.409 0.088 0.341 0.09 0.293
  [0.304] [0.495] [0.284] [0.475] [0.287] [0.456]
Trade/Services 0.134 0.047 0.131 0.131 0.13 0.139
  [0.340] [0.212] [0.337] [0.338] [0.336] [0.347]
Hotels/Restaurants 0.03 0 0.025 0.06 0.025 0.058
  [0.170] [0.000] [0.158] [0.239] [0.157] [0.234]
Transports 0.09 0.037 0.095 0.022 0.097 0.019
  [0.286] [0.191] [0.294] [0.147] [0.296] [0.138]
Finance/Real estate 0.047 0.000 0.049 0.014 0.048 0.026
  [0.212] [0.000] [0.216] [0.119] [0.214] [0.161]
Public sector 0.148 0.000 0.158 0.000 0.159 0.011
  [0.355] [0.000] [0.365] [0.000] [0.366] [0.106]
Other 0.053 0.013 0.054 0.036 0.052 0.049
  [0.224] [0.113] [0.225] [0.186] [0.222] [0.217]
Occupation:       
Legislators 0.043 0.000 0.046 0.000 0.047 0.000
  [0.203] [0.000] [0.210] [0.000] [0.211] [0.000]
Professionals 0.106 0.000 0.113 0.006 0.113 0.02
  [0.309] [0.000] [0.317] [0.076] [0.317] [0.140]
Technicians 0.142 0.013 0.149 0.033 0.148 0.06
  [0.349] [0.113] [0.357] [0.179] [0.355] [0.238]
Clerks 0.069 0.053 0.073 0.029 0.073 0.037
  [0.254] [0.225] [0.261] [0.169] [0.260] [0.188]
Service 0.13 0.000 0.127 0.119 0.126 0.125
  [0.336] [0.000] [0.333] [0.325] [0.332] [0.331]
Skilled agriculture & fishery 0.007 0.09 0.004 0.061 0.004 0.053
  [0.082] [0.288] [0.062] [0.239] [0.063] [0.225]
Craft & trade 0.252 0.325 0.249 0.3 0.25 0.289
  [0.434] [0.471] [0.433] [0.459] [0.433] [0.454]
Plant/machine operators 0.156 0.025 0.16 0.081 0.161 0.076
  [0.363] [0.157] [0.366] [0.273] [0.368] [0.266]
Elementary occupations 0.094 0.494 0.078 0.371 0.078 0.339
  [0.292] [0.503] [0.269] [0.484] [0.268] [0.474]
Firm Size:       
Firm size 1–5 0.23 0.636 0.218 0.479 0.214 0.476
  [0.421] [0.484] [0.413] [0.500] [0.410] [0.500]
Firm size 6–19 0.294 0.237 0.29 0.31 0.29 0.313
  [0.456] [0.427] [0.454] [0.463] [0.454] [0.464]
Firm size 20–99 0.241 0.061 0.251 0.09 0.254 0.084
  [0.428] [0.240] [0.434] [0.286] [0.435] [0.278]
Firm size 100+ 0.17 0 0.181 0.012 0.181 0.032
  [0.376] [0.000] [0.385] [0.111] [0.385] [0.175]
Firm size not sure: 10 or less 0.018 0.022 0.013 0.065 0.013 0.057
  [0.131] [0.148] [0.112] [0.248] [0.112] [0.233]
Firm size not sure: 11 or more 0.047 0.044 0.048 0.043 0.048 0.038
  [0.212] [0.207] [0.213] [0.204] [0.214] [0.191]
Geographical location:       
Urban 0.624 0.31 0.634 0.423 0.633 0.458
  [0.484] [0.465] [0.482] [0.495] [0.482] [0.499]
Central Serbia 0.502 0.295 0.504 0.421 0.507 0.406
  [0.500] [0.459] [0.500] [0.495] [0.500] [0.492]
Belgrade 0.217 0.085 0.223 0.123 0.221 0.153
  [0.413] [0.281] [0.416] [0.329] [0.415] [0.360]
Vojvodina 0.28 0.62 0.274 0.455 0.273 0.441
  [0.449] [0.488] [0.446] [0.499] [0.445] [0.497]
N 2,691 89 2,507 273 2,474 306
  1. Notes: Estimations incorporate sampling weights. Values in brackets are robust Huber-White (Huber 1967; White 1980) standard errors
  2. Source: Serbia Labor Force Survey (October 2008)