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Table 12 OLS/LPM regressions of informality status determinants: october 2008 and october 2009

From: Bound to lose, bound to win? The financial crisis and the informal-formal sector earnings gap in Serbia

  October 2008 October 2009
  (1) Not formally registered (2) No labor contract (3) No pension benefits (1) Not formally registered (2) No labor contract (3) No pension benefits
25–34 years old −0.024*** −0.082*** −0.089*** −0.011*** −0.061*** −0.098***
  [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.002]
35–44 years old −0.035*** −0.101*** −0.103*** 0.006*** −0.076*** −0.114***
  [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.002]
45–54 years old −0.035*** −0.134*** −0.147*** 0.001 −0.099*** −0.135***
  [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.002]
55–64 years old −0.035*** −0.110*** −0.118*** −0.012*** −0.101*** −0.127***
  [0.001] [0.001] [0.002] [0.001] [0.001] [0.002]
65 years plus 0.076*** 0.120*** 0.092*** 0.008*** −0.060*** −0.006
  [0.006] [0.007] [0.008] [0.003] [0.006] [0.005]
Secondary −0.024*** −0.083*** −0.079*** −0.004*** −0.070*** −0.069***
  [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001]
Tertiary −0.029*** −0.075*** −0.063*** −0.007*** −0.079*** −0.067***
  [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001]
Part-time 0.251*** 0.363*** 0.431*** 0.301*** 0.407*** 0.374***
  [0.002] [0.002] [0.002] [0.003] [0.003] [0.003]
Manufacturing/Mining/Electrical −0.139*** −0.217*** −0.205*** −0.107*** −0.142*** −0.142***
  [0.001] [0.002] [0.002] [0.002] [0.002] [0.002]
Construction −0.057*** −0.018*** −0.032*** −0.039*** 0.013*** −0.025***
  [0.002] [0.002] [0.002] [0.002] [0.002] [0.002]
Trade/Services −0.147*** −0.186*** −0.178*** −0.118*** −0.143*** −0.154***
  [0.001] [0.002] [0.002] [0.002] [0.002] [0.002]
Hotel/Restaurants −0.166*** −0.109*** −0.107*** −0.133*** −0.095*** −0.121***
  [0.002] [0.003] [0.003] [0.002] [0.003] [0.003]
Transport −0.130*** −0.221*** −0.228*** −0.110*** −0.138*** −0.152***
  [0.001] [0.002] [0.002] [0.002] [0.002] [0.002]
Financial/Real Estate −0.145*** −0.218*** −0.198*** −0.095*** −0.135*** −0.116***
  [0.001] [0.002] [0.002] [0.002] [0.002] [0.002]
Public Sector −0.133*** −0.220*** −0.219*** −0.113*** −0.152*** −0.163***
  [0.001] [0.002] [0.002] [0.002] [0.002] [0.002]
Other Sector −0.165*** −0.229*** −0.206*** −0.093*** −0.082*** −0.133***
  [0.002] [0.002] [0.002] [0.002] [0.002] [0.002]
Legislators −0.059*** −0.152*** −0.170*** −0.036*** −0.073*** −0.073***
  [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001]
Professionals −0.064*** −0.155*** −0.159*** −0.021*** −0.065*** −0.066***
  [0.001] [0.001] [0.002] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001]
Technicians −0.074*** −0.158*** −0.151*** −0.047*** −0.080*** −0.084***
  [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001]
Clerks −0.053*** −0.139*** −0.135*** −0.041*** −0.062*** −0.073***
  [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001]
Service −0.074*** −0.135*** −0.134*** −0.042*** −0.071*** −0.059***
  [0.001] [0.001] [0.002] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001]
Skilled 0.011*** 0.090*** 0.057*** 0.070*** 0.046*** 0.120***
  [0.004] [0.005] [0.005] [0.004] [0.005] [0.005]
Craft/trade −0.050*** −0.104*** −0.104*** −0.024*** −0.064*** −0.051***
  [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001]
Plant/Machine operators −0.079*** −0.145*** −0.151*** −0.043*** −0.096*** −0.092***
  [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001]
Firm size 6–19 −0.042*** −0.049*** −0.058*** −0.037*** −0.047*** −0.062***
  [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001]
Firm size 20–99 −0.056*** −0.097*** −0.117*** −0.050*** −0.079*** −0.080***
  [0.000] [0.001] [0.001] [0.000] [0.001] [0.001]
Firm size 100 plus −0.061*** −0.112*** −0.120*** −0.049*** −0.078*** −0.072***
  [0.000] [0.001] [0.001] [0.000] [0.001] [0.001]
Firm size not sure:10 or less −0.062*** 0.130*** 0.106*** 0.058*** 0.126*** 0.079***
  [0.002] [0.003] [0.003] [0.002] [0.003] [0.003]
Firm size not sure: 11 plus −0.047*** −0.074*** −0.098*** −0.041*** −0.075*** −0.059***
  [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001] [0.001]
Urban −0.005*** −0.005*** −0.004*** −0.003*** −0.003*** −0.003***
  [0.000] [0.001] [0.001] [0.000] [0.001] [0.001]
Central Serbia −0.007*** 0.005*** −0.007*** 0 0.008*** 0
  [0.000] [0.001] [0.001] [0.000] [0.001] [0.001]
Vojvodina 0.012*** 0.021*** 0.015*** −0.004*** 0.024*** 0.029***
  [0.000] [0.001] [0.001] [0.000] [0.001] [0.001]
Constant 0.298*** 0.599*** 0.625*** 0.190*** 0.416*** 0.462***
  [0.002] [0.002] [0.003] [0.002] [0.003] [0.003]
R2 0.242 0.325 0.305 0.189 0.237 0.212
N 2,783 2,783 2,783 2,577 2,577 2,577
  1. Notes: Estimations incorporate sampling weights. Values in brackets are robust Huber-White (Huber 1967; White 1980) standard errors. ***: statistically significant at 1%
  2. Source: Serbia Labor Force Survey (October 2008 and October 2009)