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Table 4 Determinants of training incidence (MENA and Non-MENA samples – marginal effects)

From: Under-provision of private training by MENA firms: what to Do about It?

  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)
    MENA     Non-MENA  
Mean obstacle labor −0.00453 −0.00554 −0.0272** −0.0102 −0.0838*** 0.0116 0.00873 0.00179
  (0.0138) (0.0137) (0.0113) (0.0145) (0.0109) (0.00995) (0.0101) (0.0108)
Obstacle informal low    0.0512***      
x Mean obstacle labor    (0.00780)      
Textiles     0.0535**    0.0234***  
x Mean obstacle labor     (0.0250)    (0.00873)  
Finance working capital internal      0.000986***    0.000161***
x Mean Obstacle labor      (0.000251)    (4.95e-05)
Obstacle informal low   0.0302*** −0.0345**      
   (0.00647) (0.0144)      
Mean management time 0.00428 0.00423 0.00413 0.00436 0.00433 −0.000371 −0.000324 −0.000366
  (0.00317) (0.00324) (0.00321) (0.00312) (0.00316) (0.000511) (0.000514) (0.000511)
Mean log (Inspections tax) 0.0894 0.0908 0.0818 0.114 0.0837 0.0398 0.0549** 0.0393
  (0.129) (0.131) (0.129) (0.123) (0.130) (0.0260) (0.0274) (0.0260)
Total tax rate −0.00105 −0.00110 −0.000846 −0.00147 −0.000959 −0.000484 −0.00078** −0.000476
x Mean log (Inspections tax) (0.00219) (0.00224) (0.00221) (0.00209) (0.00219) (0.000361) (0.000374) (0.000359)
Sales growth > 50 0.0327* 0.0361* 0.0381** 0.0332* 0.0353* 0.0138** 0.0144** 0.0137**
  (0.0188) (0.0189) (0.0179) (0.0190) (0.0186) (0.00604) (0.00604) (0.00603)
Sales Growth < −20 0.0333** 0.0271 0.0283 0.0332** 0.0327* −0.0125* −0.0129* −0.0125*
  (0.0166) (0.0173) (0.0177) (0.0164) (0.0167) (0.00670) (0.00680) (0.00668)
Finance working capital internal −0.00039*** −0.00040*** −0.00040*** −0.00039*** −0.0016*** −0.00012** −0.00011* −0.00033***
  (0.000117) (0.000125) (0.000120) (0.000117) (0.000301) (5.82e-05) (5.84e-05) (0.000108)
Water out −0.0456* −0.0425 −0.0439* −0.0461* −0.0442* −0.0336*** −0.0340*** −0.0338***
  (0.0242) (0.0264) (0.0260) (0.0241) (0.0239) (0.0126) (0.0126) (0.0126)
Power out 0.0101 0.00953 0.0101 0.0105 0.0114 0.0305*** 0.0307*** 0.0304***
  (0.0375) (0.0397) (0.0393) (0.0376) (0.0370) (0.00749) (0.00759) (0.00748)
Log (Size) 0.0336*** 0.0334*** 0.0331*** 0.0332*** 0.0340*** 0.0413*** 0.0418*** 0.0413***
  (0.0100) (0.0107) (0.0108) (0.00988) (0.00999) (0.00263) (0.00263) (0.00262)
Capital city 0.0224** 0.0285*** 0.0291*** 0.0242** 0.0200* −0.00456 −0.00437 −0.00435
  (0.0114) (0.0109) (0.0103) (0.0110) (0.0104) (0.00815) (0.00806) (0.00817)
Multi-plant 0.0651*** 0.0676*** 0.0669*** 0.0647*** 0.0653*** 0.0165** 0.0167** 0.0164**
  (0.0123) (0.0130) (0.0130) (0.0121) (0.0121) (0.00731) (0.00737) (0.00729)
Percent foreign 0.000962*** 0.000867*** 0.000864*** 0.000970*** 0.000972*** 9.01e-05 8.03e-05 8.92e-05
  (0.000188) (0.000156) (0.000162) (0.000192) (0.000188) (7.29e-05) (7.37e-05) (7.32e-05)
Percent government −0.000271 −0.000251 −0.000234 −0.000277 −0.000296 0.000436 0.000444 0.000423
  (0.000473) (0.000484) (0.000483) (0.000475) (0.000449) (0.000301) (0.000302) (0.000303)
Quality certificate 0.0871*** 0.0810*** 0.0813*** 0.0867*** 0.0880*** 0.0753*** 0.0763*** 0.0754***
  (0.00895) (0.00844) (0.00888) (0.00897) (0.00862) (0.00699) (0.00710) (0.00698)
Crime −0.00120** −0.00122** −0.00123** −0.00120** −0.00131** 0.000159 0.000180 0.000137
  (0.000556) (0.000579) (0.000566) (0.000548) (0.000578) (0.000733) (0.000742) (0.000735)
Sole Owner −0.0112 −0.0100 −0.00860 −0.0130 −0.0108 −0.0177*** −0.0168** −0.0175***
  (0.0202) (0.0211) (0.0210) (0.0196) (0.0196) (0.00671) (0.00675) (0.00668)
Partner −0.00132 0.00159 0.00331 −0.00354 −0.000173 −0.0258** −0.0271** −0.0257**
  (0.0210) (0.0218) (0.0216) (0.0195) (0.0208) (0.0129) (0.0131) (0.0129)
Log (Age) −0.0281*** −0.0286*** −0.0274*** −0.0288*** −0.0270*** 0.00183 0.00156 0.00185
  (0.00563) (0.00544) (0.00531) (0.00557) (0.00521) (0.00349) (0.00351) (0.00346)
Email 0.0370** 0.0374** 0.0378** 0.0371** 0.0376** 0.0565*** 0.0562*** 0.0560***
  (0.0161) (0.0165) (0.0159) (0.0157) (0.0156) (0.00797) (0.00807) (0.00801)
Website 0.0332* 0.0342 0.0347 0.0332 0.0327 0.0327*** 0.0327*** 0.0328***
  (0.0202) (0.0217) (0.0217) (0.0205) (0.0204) (0.00690) (0.00696) (0.00691)
Log (Manager Experience) 0.0277*** 0.0282*** 0.0278*** 0.0278*** 0.0277*** 0.0123** 0.0121** 0.0122**
  (0.00928) (0.00946) (0.00970) (0.00939) (0.00944) (0.00484) (0.00487) (0.00483)
Log (Sales Export) 0.00133 0.00126 0.00101 0.00108 0.00121 0.0131*** 0.0129*** 0.0131***
  (0.00447) (0.00477) (0.00467) (0.00439) (0.00438) (0.00222) (0.00218) (0.00221)
Female Owner 0.00477 0.00427 0.00409 0.00354 0.00546 0.0131** 0.0131** 0.0129**
  (0.0268) (0.0276) (0.0273) (0.0263) (0.0269) (0.00542) (0.00543) (0.00543)
Gift Officer 0.00311 0.00313 0.00308 0.00313 0.00311 0.000767* 0.000804* 0.000747*
  (0.00228) (0.00238) (0.00232) (0.00227) (0.00230) (0.000438) (0.000446) (0.000441)
Obstacle Education2 0.0180 0.0211 0.0213 0.0174 0.0171 0.0283*** 0.0283*** 0.0282***
  (0.0243) (0.0257) (0.0254) (0.0235) (0.0240) (0.00361) (0.00364) (0.00359)
Log (Education Spending) 1.221* 1.177 1.251* 1.231* 1.254* −0.187*** −0.193*** −0.186***
  (0.705) (0.734) (0.711) (0.715) (0.673) (0.0409) (0.0420) (0.0409)
Country & industry effects Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Clustering Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Pseudo R2 0.206 0.210 0.211 0.207 0.208 0.342 0.342 0.342
Observations 3,325 3,270 3,270 3,325 3,325 40,590 40,260 40,590
  1. Note: Dependent variable is a dummy variable that assumes the value 1 if the firm offers formal on-the-job training to its employees. Robust standard errors are given in parentheses. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.10