Skip to main content

Table 3 Definition of variables

From: Under-provision of private training by MENA firms: what to Do about It?

Variable Definition
GDP per capita GDP per capita, PPP (constant 2005 international $)
IndexH Index of labor law rigidity to hiring
IndexF Index of labor law rigidity to firing
IndexO Overall index of labor law rigidity
Total tax rate Total tax rates (Doing Business Database)
Rule of law Index for the quality of Legal System and Property Rights (Economic Freedom of the World)
Education spending Public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP
Capital city (Dummy) Location in capital city
Industry (Dummy) Type of industry
Textiles (Dummy) Textile industry
Garments (Dummy) Garment industry
Textiles and Garments (Dummy) Textile and/or garment industry
Food (Dummy) Food industry
Other manufacture (Dummy) Other manufacturing industry
Multi-Plant (Dummy) Multi-plant firm
Sole owner (Dummy) Sole proprietorship
Partner (Dummy) Partnership
Percent private Percentage of the firm owned by private domestic individuals, companies or organizations
Percent foreign Percentage of the firm owned by private foreign individuals, companies or organizations
Percent government Percentage of the firm owned by government/state
Age Number of years since the establishment began operations in the country
Quality certificate (Dummy) Possession of internationally-recognized quality certification
Sales export Percentage of total sales exported
Email (Dummy) Firm uses email in communications with clients or suppliers
Gift officer Percent of annual sales paid as a gift or an informal payment
Manager experience Manager’s experience in sector
Crime Losses due to theft, robbery, vandalism or arson
Management time Percentage of senior management's time spent in dealing with regulations
Inspections tax Number of times inspected by or met with tax officials
Size Total number of full-time permanent and seasonal/temporary workers
Average labor change Average annual percentage change in the total number of full-time employees
Female owner (Dummy) Female owner
Relative labor productivity Sales per worker relative to the country and industry average
Finance working capital internal Percent of working capital financed using internal funds or retained earnings
Water out (Dummy) Incidence of water outages
Power out (Dummy) Incidence of power outages
Sales growth > 50 (Dummy) Sales growth rate greater than fifty percent
Sales growth < −20 (Dummy) Sales growth rate less than negative twenty percent
Training (Dummy) Incidence of training
Obstacles: Severity of the obstacle: No Obstacle (0), Minor Obstacle (1), Moderate obstacle (2), Major Obstacle (3), or Very Severe Obstacle (4)
Obstacle labor Labor regulations
Obstacle education Inadequately educated workforce
Obstacle informal Practices of competitors in the informal sector
Obstacle education2 (Dummy) Skills and education of available workers
Obstacle labor2 (Dummy) Labor regulations