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Table 2 Descriptive statistics for MENA and Non-MENA countries

From: Under-provision of private training by MENA firms: what to Do about It?

Variable Obs. Mean SD Obs. Mean SD Min Max Difference
   MENA   Non-MENA    
Year 3778 2008.4 1.55 41854 2008.2 2.06 2006 2012 −0.2***
GDP per capita 3778 4791.8 1424.3 37043 7351.03 4829.9 284.2 23167.8 2559.2***
Total tax rate 3778 47.4 14.03 41854 54.55 37.42 16.5 287.1 7.2***
Rule of Law 3778 4.3 1.8 40871 4.92 1.08 1 8.39 0.63***
IndexH 3778 17.2 20.1 41854 44.23 26.07 0 100 27.04***
IndexF 3778 46.2 16.4 41854 29.46 23.64 0 70 −16.70***
IndexO 3778 28.9 5.16 41854 29.97 14.95 4 66 1.07***
Education spending 3778 4.9 2.11 41697 4.07 1.41 1.1 10.7 −0.82***
Capital city 3778 0.26 0.44 41854 0.38 0.49 0 1 0.12***
Textiles 3778 0.09 0.29 41524 0.05 0.22 0 1 −0.04***
Garments 3778 0.10 0.30 41854 0.09 0.28 0 1 −0.02***
Textiles and garments 3778 0.196 0.397 41854 0.14 0.35 0 1 −0.06***
Food 3778 0.096 0.29 41854 0.13 0.34 0 1 0.03***
Other manufacture 3778 0.54 0.50 41854 0.35 0.48 0 1 −0.19***
Multi-plant 3778 0.20 0.40 41854 0.15 0.39 0 1 −0.05***
Sole owner 3778 0.43 0.50 41854 0.27 0.45 0 1 −0.16***
Partner 3778 0.14 0.35 41854 0.06 0.24 0 1 −0.08***
Percent private 3774 93.80 23.16 41144 90.11 28.14 0 100 −3.7***
Percent foreign 3778 1.88 12.05 41854 8.88 26.82 0 100 6.9***
Percent government 3778 2.39 14.41 41854 0.31 4.65 0 100 −2.08***
Age 3778 19.82 16.35 41854 19.69 18.61 0 340 −0.13
Quality certificate 3778 0.16 0.36 41854 0.20 0.40 0 1 0.05***
Sales export 3778 7.50 20.81 41854 8.42 22.74 0 100 0.9*
Website 3778 0.30 0.46 41854 0.43 0.50 0 1 0.1***
Email 3778 0.42 0.49 41854 0.72 0.45 0 1 0.3***
Gift officer 3778 1.88 6.67 41854 0.98 4.19 0 100 −0.9***
Manager experience 3778 14.96 11.18 41854 17.76 11.74 0 75 2.8***
Crime 3778 0.98 7.98 41854 0.58 3.28 0 100 −0.40***
Management time 3778 9.49 18.22 41854 11.96 17.95 0 100 2.5***
Inspections tax 3019 3.89 7.12 24192 3.58 5.56 0 100 −0.31**
Total tax ratex mean log (Inspect. tax) 3778 63.95 25.08 41854 68.27 62.96 0 924.14 4.3***
Size 3778 193.04 802.97 41854 111.58 517.48 0 27802 −81.5***
Average labor change 3568 15.17 58.77 38503 45.37 175.94 −96.0 11064.3 30.2***
Female owner 3778 0.18 0.38 41854 0.32 0.47 0 1 0.15***
Relative labor productivity 3711 2.05 20.70 41816 1.01 6.77 0 803.0 −1.04***
Finance WC internal 3778 83.57 28.91 41854 65.43 36.29 0 100 −18.1***
Water out 3778 0.77 0.42 41854 0.92 0.28 0 1 0.15***
Power out 3778 0.739 0.44 41854 0.59 0.49 0 1 −0.15***
Sales Growth > 50 3778 0.048 0.21 41854 0.24 0.43 0 1 0.19***
Sales growth < −20 3778 0.24 0.43 41854 0.09 0.29 0 1 −0.15***
Training 3778 0.15 0.36 41854 0.24 0.42 0 1 0.08***
Obstacle labor 3732 1.30 1.4 41693 1.09 1.22 0 4 −0.21***
Obstacle education 3778 1.79 1.6 41854 1.43 1.32 0 4 −0.36***
Obstacle informal 3606 2.35 1.57 40540 1.68 1.42 0 5 −0.68***
Obstacle informal low 3778 0.31 0.46 41854 0.46 0.50 0 1 0.16***
Obstacle education2 3778 0.38 0.49 41854 0.25 0.43 0 1 −0.14***
Obstacle Labor2 3732 0.23 0.42 41693 0.15 0.36 0 1 −0.081***
  1. Source: Author's calculations based on the Enterprise Surveys (World Bank). The enforcement measure Obstacle Informal Low was generated using firm's response to the question about perceived severity of anti-competitive or informal practices coded as Obstacle Informal. Obstacle Informal Low is, therefore, a dummy variable equal to one if Obstacle Informal is either 0 or 1 on a four-point scale from 0 to 4 (i.e., no or minor obstacle), and zero otherwise. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001