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Table 4 Correlates of job growth among basic firm-level features and overall business climate traits including wages, infrastructure, regulation and finance, in East Asia Pacific over the last 3 years (model 2)

From: Creating and destroying jobs across East Asia Pacific: a country-level analysis on wages, exports, finance, regulation and infrastructure

Dependent variable: Job growth rate, annual China Fiji Indonesia Lao Micronesia Mongolia Philippines Samoa Timor-Leste Tonga Vanuatu Vietnam
Coef. tstat Coef. tstat Coef. tstat Coef. tstat Coef. tstat Coef. tstat Coef. tstat Coef. tstat Coef. tstat Coef. tstat Coef. tstat Coef. tstat
Basic firm-level traits                         
Initial firm size, <=5 emp. (ref. 31+) 0.136*** 195.0 0.135*** 3.7 0.358*** 82.8 0.146*** 5.3 0.968*** 11.4 2.362*** 18.6 0.379*** 26.9 0.212*** 3.8 0.262** 2.5 0.136*** 3.5 0.043 0.3 0.511*** 23.8
Initial firm size, 6–15 emp. 0.048*** 106.3 0.116*** 3.7 0.060*** 14.5 0.084*** 3.6 0.148*** 2.9 0.572*** 5.9 0.090*** 9.3 −0.005 −0.1 0.270*** 3.0 0.098** 2.5 0.058 0.7 0.533*** 32.5
Initial firm size, 16–30 emp. 0.009*** 16.4 0.063** 2.3 −0.017*** −3.1 −0.044 −1.5 0.241*** 4.4 0.276*** 2.9 0.066*** 6.7 −0.041 −0.5 −0.004 −0.0 −0.000 −0.0 0.111 1.1 0.224*** 13.5
Firms <10 years old (ref. >=20) 0.029*** 42.5 0.064** 2.0 0.012*** 4.8 0.027 1.2 0.096* 1.8 0.119 0.8 −0.084*** −8.5 −0.030 −0.6 −0.171 −0.6 0.024* 1.9 0.241*** 3.3 −0.079*** −3.5
Firms 10–19 years old 0.007*** 10.8 0.034 1.6 0.069*** 27.6 −0.003 −0.1 0.195*** 4.1 0.490*** 3.7 −0.077*** −8.9 −0.121*** −3.0 −0.060 −0.2 0.013 0.9 0.136* 1.8 0.017 0.8
City w/ 1 mil. or capital (ref. small city) 0.016*** 8.9 0.018 0.8 −0.052*** −26.6 -- -- -- -- 0.239*** 3.0 −0.023*** −2.8 −0.118 −1.3 -- -- -- -- -- -- 0.090*** 6.1
Manufacturing (ref. other sectors) 0.044*** 41.4 0.064 1.3 0.026*** 3.3 −0.128*** −3.4 −0.053 −0.6 −1.000*** −10.1 0.029 0.8 −0.051 −1.0 −0.160** −2.0 0.112*** 8.8 −0.140 −1.1 −0.118*** −5.8
Services 0.002 1.5 0.146*** 4.1 0.001 0.2 −0.120*** −3.4 0.352*** 4.6 −1.213*** −11.5 0.076** 2.0 −0.031 −0.6 −0.095 −1.1    0.051 0.6 −0.252*** −11.7
Formally registered when opened 0.005*** 6.5 0.054 1.3 −0.020*** −7.9 −0.034* −1.7 0.624*** 5.8 0.115 1.0 0.117*** 5.9 −0.039 −0.7 −0.077 −0.8 0.067*** 3.2 −0.000 −0.0 0.191*** 12.6
Sole proprietorship −0.011*** −32.5 −0.009 −0.5 −0.166*** −52.6 0.008 0.2 −0.216*** −5.3 0.132 0.5 −0.017* −1.7 −0.037 −1.1 −0.089 −1.1 −0.025 −1.6 0.177** 2.6 −0.156*** −12.9
Firm is foreign owned, partly or fully 0.016*** 18.9 0.009 0.3 0.093*** 11.6 0.062* 1.8 0.117** 2.7 0.029 0.3 0.044*** 4.1 0.054 1.4 0.033 0.5 −0.059*** −3.7 −0.050 −0.8 −0.002 −0.1
Firm is partly government owned −0.003*** −3.4 -- -- −0.084 −1.1 -- -- -- -- −0.120 −0.1 −0.025 −0.7 −0.269*** −2.7 -- -- 0.058 1.2 -- -- −0.132*** −4.8
Share of female employees −0.046*** −55.5 −0.147*** −5.5 −0.071*** −26.3 −0.087*** −3.2 −0.582*** −6.2 −0.544*** −4.1 −0.120*** −8.5 0.206*** 3.6 −0.239* −1.7 −0.104*** −4.7 −0.144 −1.3 0.081*** 3.7
Wage and productivity traits                         
Wage per worker, tercile 2 (ref. ter. 1) 0.025*** 55.4 −0.082*** −3.1 −0.110*** −47.9 −0.047** −2.4 −0.481*** −7.1 −0.259*** −3.3 −0.067*** −6.7 −0.051 −1.6 −0.119* −1.8 −0.029** −2.4 −0.009 −0.1 −0.156*** −10.9
Wage per worker, tercile 3 0.014*** 30.4 0.009 0.3 −0.109*** −32.0 −0.055*** −2.8 −0.470*** −6.3 −0.493*** −5.5 −0.061*** −5.4 −0.232*** −6.2 −0.170** −2.2 −0.047*** −3.7 −0.161** −2.1 −0.306*** −20.5
Labour productivity (sales/employ.), ln −0.008*** −50.3 −0.066*** −9.8 −0.006*** −6.3 −0.007 −1.2 0.074*** 3.3 0.019 0.7 −0.011*** −3.9 −0.024** −2.1 0.012 0.8 −0.026*** −5.0 −0.043 −1.6 −0.018*** −3.5
Technology and infrastructure traits                         
Firm exports 0.021*** 37.5 0.067* 1.7 0.185*** 28.9 0.021 0.9 -- -- 0.335*** 2.6 0.042*** 3.4 −0.037 −0.9 −0.175 −1.0 0.016 0.5 -- -- 0.023 1.5
Email use for doing business 0.007*** 14.7 −0.102*** −2.6 −0.050*** −14.0 0.084*** 4.5 −0.027 −0.4 −0.373*** −4.4 0.077*** 7.4 0.047 1.0 0.135** 2.1 0.018* 1.8 0.254** 2.1 −0.012 −0.8
Has 3 or + power outages a month -- -- 0.118*** 4.9 -- -- −0.024 −1.5 0.084* 1.8 0.739*** 10.9 0.085*** 7.8 −0.196*** −5.3 -- -- 0.016 1.4 0.197*** 2.7 −0.085*** −7.5
Business regulation traits                         
Firm has ISO certification −0.026*** −69.8 −0.128*** −5.1 −0.025*** −4.0 −0.105*** −4.2 0.001 0.0 −0.306*** −3.3 0.036*** 3.5 0.116** 2.5 −0.483** −2.2 −0.013 −0.9 0.040 0.6 0.055*** 3.1
Firm has external auditor 0.023*** 63.6 0.010 0.3 −0.001 −0.2 0.055*** 3.1 −0.028 −0.7 0.157* 1.7 −0.048*** −3.6 −0.261*** −6.4 0.050 0.7 0.007 0.6 0.116* 1.8 0.192*** 14.0
Spends 5+ % of time w/regulations 0.036*** 51.0 −0.046** −2.4 −0.016*** −5.4 0.050*** 2.9 −0.109** −2.1 −0.220*** −3.1 0.009 1.2 −0.058 −1.4 0.030 0.5 0.010 1.1 0.157*** 2.7 −0.053*** −4.2
Financial climate traits                         
Has credit line or loan from a bank 0.025*** 55.8 −0.094*** −3.3 −0.020*** −8.1 0.080*** 4.5 0.083* 1.8 −0.013 −0.2 0.062*** 7.6 −0.074*** −2.8 −0.070 −0.7 0.019** 2.3 −0.014 −0.2 0.097*** 8.6
Has overdraft facility with their bank 0.002*** 4.9 0.082*** 4.1 0.007 1.4 -- -- −0.253*** −4.4 0.425*** 6.4 0.065*** 7.7 −0.063* −1.9 0.123* 1.7 0.003 0.2 0.093 1.2 −0.162*** −10.6
Tax and corruption traits                         
Inspected by tax officials last year 0.004*** 10.2 0.096*** 4.7 0.020*** 6.1 −0.088** −2.5 0.272*** 5.5 0.051 0.7 −0.064*** −6.1 −0.103** −2.6 0.125** 2.1 −0.015 −1.2 0.202** 2.5 0.003 0.2
Gives informal payments to officials −0.064*** −66.5 −0.105** −2.4 0.084*** 24.1 -- -- -- -- -- -- 0.007 0.9 0.139*** 3.3 0.071 0.8 0.202*** 3.0 −0.233 −1.1 0.033** 2.4
Constant 0.081*** 27.0 0.625*** 5.8 0.268*** 14.9 0.280** 2.3 −1.282*** −4.6 0.213 0.5 0.051 0.9 0.964*** 6.0 0.181 0.6 0.161** 2.4 −0.050 −0.1 0.403*** 4.1
Observations 1678   45   837   159   32   171   473   41   60   70   58   348  
Adjusted R-squared 0.139   0.565   0.186   0.265   0.929   0.503   0.117   0.738   0.339   0.437   0.372   0.217  
  1. Source: Author’s regression results based on calculations of enterprise survey data. Note: The same note applies as in Table 3.