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Table 2 Summary statistics of overall business environment traits in East Asia Pacific

From: Creating and destroying jobs across East Asia Pacific: a country-level analysis on wages, exports, finance, regulation and infrastructure

All shares are out of 100% unless otherwise indicated China Fiji Indonesia Lao PDR Micronesia Mongolia Philippines Samoa Timor-Leste Tonga Vanuatu Vietnam
Basic firm-level traits             
Initial firm size, <=5 employees 9.2 23.0 44.2 21.2 15.7 16.2 11.0 13.3 28.2 41.8 14.3 12.8
Initial firm size, 6–15 employees 44.1 40.5 42.4 40.6 51.8 37.0 38.8 49.6 38.8 46.0 49.4 27.2
Initial firm size, 16–30 employees 14.9 17.4 6.1 9.7 19.3 24.6 21.2 17.5 17.1 11.7 24.0 24.2
Initial firm size, 31+ employees 31.9 19.1 7.3 28.4 13.1 22.2 29.0 19.7 15.9 0.6 12.4 35.7
  100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Firms <10 years old 41.2 24.5 36.7 40.2 31.4 49.3 36.4 27.4 89.8 54.7 44.2 65.1
Firms 10–19 years old 51.0 27.2 39.4 41.6 37.9 44.7 32.9 37.0 8.5 29.7 24.2 23.5
Firms >=20 years old 7.8 48.4 23.9 18.3 30.8 6.1 30.8 35.7 1.7 15.7 31.6 11.4
  100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Manufacturing sector 50.6 16.0 82.0 30.7 12.4 26.6 22.7 19.7 38.0 15.0 7.9 38.8
Service sector 47.2 80.5 15.5 62.7 80.3 47.8 72.4 70.2 39.9 83.8 73.0 48.8
Other sectors 2.2 3.5 2.5 6.6 7.3 25.6 5.0 10.2 22.1 1.2 19.2 12.4
  100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Firm formally registered when started business 95.8 93.5 29.1 83.7 96.9 90.1 97.5 88.4 91.7 93.5 88.1 87.5
Firm is incorporated 35.6 53.0 14.8 3.9 6.0 96.0 59.9 49.4 6.9 19.9 21.9 64.0
Sole proprietorship (firm owned and managed by one person) 50.8 39.8 84.3 91.9 60.6 1.8 24.3 46.3 83.7 65.5 67.2 25.9
Firm is foreign owned, partly or fully 5.0 11.9 1.8 10.0 26.6 8.7 13.6 21.3 17.5 13.5 36.0 9.5
Firm is partly government owned 3.1 0.6 0.3 0.8 0.0 0.1 0.4 1.8 0.5 1.4 0.0 7.4
Share of unskilled employees 49.6 -- 20.3 30.9 -- 29.5 10.8 -- -- -- -- 20.8
Share of female employees 37.8 37.3 36.8 46.4 37.3 48.5 39.2 34.4 22.8 56.3 37.7 36.1
Firm-level business climate, technology and infrastructure traits             
Share of firms that export 10.9 15.6 2.7 21.3 35.4 5.0 7.8 14.8 1.0 3.3 27.4 14.9
Email use for doing business 85.0 86.0 13.2 42.4 85.1 62.0 67.8 86.5 47.2 56.5 83.5 83.2
Provides formal training to workers 79.2 61.0 4.7 26.9 58.3 61.2 31.1 79.1 49.7 11.1 47.5 43.6
Has a generator 8.0 27.8 6.4 12.2 43.9 24.2 40.8 18.6 41.9 75.5 33.4 34.8
# of power outages in a typical month last fiscal year 0.3 1.7 2.8 2.7 5.8 3.0 1.0 5.4 14.1 2.1 2.8 2.0
Had 3 or more power outages in a typical month last year, % 1.2 20.0 26.3 41.2 68.9 33.1 13.8 70.9 91.5 27.7 28.3 27.3
Firm-level business regulation traits             
# of days needed to obtain operating license 27.5 6.5 21.1 13.1 7.3 43.5 10.6 6.1 16.6 3.3 21.6 17.8
Firm has ISO certification 53.4 22.9 2.9 11.9 6.0 16.7 15.7 31.4 2.2 7.8 27.0 16.7
Firm has external auditor 63.3 90.1 4.0 31.7 25.2 79.0 91.1 71.7 20.8 45.2 43.6 30.1
Management’s time dealing w/government regulations, % 1.5 6.4 2.4 7.7 15.4 13.0 11.1 17.5 5.8 6.6 9.2 5.3
Spends 5% or more of time w/government regulations, % 7.4 29.9 15.0 42.7 50.5 65.2 53.3 60.2 44.4 75.5 54.8 28.9
# of hours per week firm operated last year 51.8 -- 52.3 -- -- 52.6 66.5 -- -- -- -- 61.7
Firm-level financial climate traits             
Has checking and/or savings account 96.0 96.1 51.5 78.2 98.5 61.4 97.8 97.0 87.7 100 96.0 89.4
Has credit line or loan from a bank 25.3 37.8 18.2 29.3 43.0 52.9 33.2 51.3 6.9 54.3 45.8 49.9
Has overdraft facility with their bank 24.1 55.6 5.8 -- 12.5 35.7 28.7 63.2 15.8 40.2 53.2 12.3
Firm-level tax and corruption traits             
Firm visited/inspected by tax officials last year 59.4 61.3 11.7 93.8 56.1 68.0 87.2 52.1 44.3 21.9 75.2 61.1
Firm gives informal payments to public officials (for license, tax etc.)a 3.4 8.9 9.3 17.6 0.0 -- 16.1 13.5 13.1 0.2 3.4 19.4
Sample size 2700 164 1444 233 68 362 1326 109 150 150 128 1053
  1. Source: Author’s calculations based on enterprise survey data. aMongolia has been omitted from the survey sample of firms paying informal payments/gifts to public officials given limited observations. Additional tables of summary statistics including values on minimum, maximum, and standard deviation are not included due to space limitations.