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Table 9 Decomposition of informality differences across gender: 2006 and 2011

From: Informal self-employment in Kazakhstan

  Men Women
  2006 2011 2006 2011
Predicted probability [Pr(I =1)] 0.355 (0.040) 0.199 (0.024) 0.332 (0.039) 0.132 (0.019)
Difference [∆IGAP] −0.156 [100%] −0.200 [100%]
Due to characteristics [EXP j∆t ] −0.039 [−25%] −0.048 [−24%]
  Explained by [EXP jr∆t ]
Age −0.0010 5 × 10−5
Children 0.0001 −0.0010
Education −0.0066 −0.0109
Married 0.0001 0.0002
Kazakh 0.0015 −0.0009
European 0.0036 0.0054
Tenure −0.0184 −0.0168
Hours −0.0133 −0.0156
Professional −0.0010 −0.0005
Urban −0.0027 −0.0089
Almaty/Astana −0.0013 0.0009
  1. Notes: Probabilities evaluated at the mean value of variables. The estimated standard errors of the predictions, based on Stata’s delta method command, are in parentheses. The explained part of the predicted change in informality rates between 2006 (period 0, pre-crisis) and 2011 (period 1, post-crisis) is attributed to the change in informality that occurs only if the composition value (∆X) changes from period 0 to period 1.