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Table 8 Informality equation estimation results (marginal effects)

From: Informal self-employment in Kazakhstan

  Men Women
  Double probit Probit Double probit Probit
Variable 2006 2009 2011 2006 2009 2011 2006 2009 2011 2006 2009 2011
Age −0.003 b 0.001 b −0.001 b −0.004 b 0.002 c −0.003 b −4 × 10−4 0.001 b 4 × 10−5 −3 × 10−4 0.001 −0.001
  (0.001) (0.000) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.0003) (0.0002) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001)
Children 0.002 0.015 0.023 c −0.003 0.015 0.046 c −0.008 0.011 0.010 −0.006 0.005 0.028
  (0.027) (0.012) (0.013) (0.036) (0.029) (0.026) (0.026) (0.008) (0.008) (0.038) (0.030) (0.029)
Education −0.032 a −0.020 a −0.027 a −0.038 a −0.040 a −0.038 a −0.024 a −0.007 a −0.011 a −0.027 a −0.017 b −0.022 b
  (0.006) (0.003) (0.003) (0.008) (0.006) (0.006) (0.006) (0.002) (0.002) (0.008) (0.006) (0.007)
Married −0.006 −0.013 −0.006 −0.012 −0.022 −0.011 −0.006 0.014 b −0.007 −0.010 0.057 b −0.023
  (0.026) (0.012) (0.013) (0.035) (0.030) (0.028) (0.020) (0.006) (0.006) (0.029) (0.026) (0.026)
Kazakh 0.028 −0.023 −0.048 a 0.070 c 0.048 −0.009 −0.014 −0.031 b −0.022 b −0.009 −0.042 0.020
  (0.030) (0.014) (0.015) (0.039) (0.035) (0.030) (0.031) (0.011) (0.010) (0.045) (0.041) (0.038)
European −0.047 −0.066 a −0.098 a −0.040 −0.073 c −0.132 a −0.053 c −0.058 a −0.045 a −0.071 −0.140 a −0.095 b
  (0.031) (0.014) (0.014) (0.042) (0.038) (0.034) (0.032) (0.011) (0.009) (0.047) (0.042) (0.041)
Tenure −0.047 a −0.022 a −0.011 b −0.059 a −0.046 a −0.013 −0.052 a −0.030 a −0.014 a −0.067 a −0.090 a −0.034 a
  (0.008) (0.004) (0.004) (0.010) (0.009) (0.009) (0.008) (0.005) (0.003) (0.011) (0.009) (0.010)
Hours −0.008 a −0.002 b −0.003 b −0.008 a −0.003 −0.004 b −0.008 a −0.002 a −0.002 a −0.009 a −0.002 −0.005 b
  (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.002) (0.002) (0.002) (0.001) (0.0007) (0.001) (0.001) (0.002) (0.002)
Professional −0.123 b −0.063 a −0.100 a −0.089 −0.096 −0.194 b −0.032 −0.074 a −0.059 a 0.115 −0.102 −0.068
  (0.047) (0.018) (0.018) (0.086) (0.070) (0.062) (0.048) (0.009) (0.009) (0.071) (0.065) (0.061)
Urban 0.054 b 0.008 0.024 b 0.095 a 0.066 b 0.084 a 0.092 a 0.001 0.008 0.147 a 0.031 0.085 a
  (0.022) (0.010) (0.011) (0.028) (0.025) (0.023) (0.022) (0.006) (0.007) (0.029) (0.026) (0.026)
Almaty/Astana −0.135 a −0.011 −0.040 b −0.129 b 0.066 −0.050 −0.135 a −0.021 c −0.047 a −0.171 b 0.039 −0.091
  (0.033) (0.019) (0.019) (0.060) (0.053) (0.050) (0.031) (0.012) (0.010) (0.061) (0.064) (0.058)
N 1647 1992 2300 1647 1992 2300 1566 1822 1716 1566 1822 1716
  1. Notes: Marginal effects (at mean) were computed in Stata using the “margeff” command written by Bartus (2005). Estimates based on unweighted regressions. Robust standard errors are in parentheses. Coefficients in bold are significant at: ap < 0.001, bp < 0.01, cp < 0.05.
  2. Dependent variable = Informal.