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Table 7 Selection equation estimation results

From: Informal self-employment in Kazakhstan

  Men Women
Variable 2006 2009 2011 2006 2009 2011
Age −0.003 c 0.001 −0.0004 −0.004 b 0.006 a −0.002
  (0.002) (0.002) (0.001) (0.002) (0.002) (0.002)
Children −0.023 0.031 0.051 −0.033 0.109 b 0.129 b
  (0.046) (0.038) (0.036) (0.051) (0.041) (0.040)
Education −0.083 a −0.077 a −0.111 a −0.108 a −0.060 a −0.110 a
  (0.010) (0.008) (0.008) (0.010) (0.009) (0.009)
Married −0.028 0.017 −0.075 b 0.057 0.024 −0.079 b
  (0.045) (0.039) (0.038) (0.038) (0.034) (0.035)
Kazakh −0.366 a −0.302 a −0.426 a −0.150 b −0.206 a −0.385 a
  (0.056) (0.053) (0.046) (0.063) (0.060) (0.057)
European −0.589 a −0.524 a −0.657 a −0.393 a −0.403 a −0.671 a
  (0.058) (0.055) (0.051) (0.065) (0.061) (0.060)
Tenure −0.095 a −0.077 a −0.054 a −0.142 a −0.150 a −0.118 a
  (0.014) (0.013) (0.013) (0.014) (0.013) (0.014)
Hours −0.027 a −0.009 b −0.013 a −0.024 a −0.018 a −0.016 a
  (0.003) (0.003) (0.003) (0.003) (0.003) (0.003)
Professional −0.711 a −0.560 a −0.611 a −0.878 a −0.979 a −0.825 a
  (0.091) (0.068) (0.066) (0.077) (0.066) (0.063)
Urban −0.182 a −0.121 a −0.131 a −0.001 −0.031 −0.102 b
  (0.038) (0.033) (0.032) (0.039) (0.035) (0.035)
Almaty/Astana −0.476 a −0.546 a −0.472 a −0.349 a −0.631 a −0.459 a
  (0.067) (0.059) (0.055) (0.070) (0.068) (0.067)
Experience 1.544 a 1.439 a 1.491 a 1.590 a 1.597 a 1.671 a
  (0.047) (0.046) (0.048) (0.051) (0.052) (0.052)
Constant 1.943 a 0.852 a 1.689 a 1.970 a 1.004 a 1.913 a
  (0.172) (0.172) (0.165) (0.179) (0.178) (0.190)
N (total) 10527 11827 11608 10600 11437 11719
  1. Notes: Unweighted regressions. Robust standard errors are in parentheses. Coefficients in bold are significant at: ap < 0.001, bp < 0.01, cp < 0.05.
  2. Dependent variable = Self-employed.