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Table 4 Informality rates by gender and ethnicity, 2006–2011 (%)

From: Informal self-employment in Kazakhstan

  Men  
  2006 2009 2011 ∆ 2006–2011 (%)
Kazakh 57.4 48.1 49.4 −14
European 45.5 36.3 35.8 −21
Minority 46.4 46.1 49.4 6
  Women  
  2006 2009 2011 ∆ 2006–2011 (%)
Kazakh 53.6 49.5 47.0 −12
European 46.4 38.2 33.3 −28
Minority 48.4 52.6 41.7 −14
  1. Source: Authors’ estimates based on KLFS data (4th quarter).
  2. Note: Weighted by KLFS sampling weights.