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Table 3 Definitions of variables

From: Informal self-employment in Kazakhstan

  Specification
Panel A. Dependent
Self-employed 0 = paid employment; 1 = own-account (independent) self-employment.
Informal 1 = unregistered entrepreneurship/unlicensed economic activity, formalising the registration, or the respondent does not know.
  0 = registered entrepreneurship or licensed economic activity (formal).
Panel B. Explanatory
Age Age (years).
Children Number of children in the household below the age of 5.
Education 4 = less than secondary, 8 = incomplete secondary, 10 = complete secondary or vocational, 12 = technical or incomplete higher, 15 = higher or postgraduate.
Married 1 = Married.
Kazakh 1 = Kazakh.
European 1 = Belarusian, German, Greek, Russian or Ukrainian.
Tenure Years in current business/Tenure in current employment. 1 = less than 6 months, 2 = 6–12 months, 3 = 1–3 years, 4 = 3–5 years, 5 = more than 5 years.
Hours Usual work hours (per week) in the main job.
Professional 1 = Architects, Chemists, Computer Specialists, Dentists, Doctors, Engineers, Lawyers, Managers, Mathematicians, Physicists, Public Officials, Pharmacists, School Teachers, Scientists, Statisticians, College or University Lecturers.
Urban 1 = Urban location except Almaty and Astana.
Almaty/Astana 1 = Almaty or Astana.
Panel C. Identifying
Experience 1 = previous experience of attempting to start own business.