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Table 2 Informality distribution by gender and education level, 2006–2011 (%)

From: Informal self-employment in Kazakhstan

Panel A. Total informality rate
  2006 2009 2011
Men 0.525 0.446 0.463
Women 0.507 0.461 0.427
Panel B. Distribution by education level
  Men
  Formal Informal
  2006 2009 2011 2006 2009 2011
≤ Secondary/Vocational 0.46 0.45 0.41 0.66 0.61 0.58
Technical/Incomplete Higher 0.34 0.34 0.38 0.26 0.26 0.31
Higher 0.20 0.21 0.21 0.08 0.12 0.11
  Women
  Formal Informal
  2006 2009 2011 2006 2009 2011
≤ Secondary 0.47 0.38 0.38 0.61 0.49 0.47
Technical/Incomplete Higher 0.36 0.38 0.39 0.28 0.33 0.37
Higher 0.17 0.24 0.22 0.11 0.18 0.17
  1. Source: Authors’ estimates based on KLFS data (4th quarter).
  2. Note: Weighted by KLFS sampling weights.