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Table 5 Female participation rates regressions by selected country in the Middle East and North Africa region

From: Economic development and female labor participation in the Middle East and North Africa: a test of the U-shape hypothesis

  (1) Fertility rate (2) Agricultural share in value added (3) Manufacturing value added (ln, constant, local curr.) (4) Services value added (ln, constant, local curr.)
AB-GMM     
Pooled sample −0.316*** −0.043 0.755*** 0.885***
OLS 2 lags     
Algeria 0.058 −0.006 0.783*** 1.290***
Egypt −1.285** −0.492*** 1.907** 2.470**
Jordan −0.421 0.108 1.389* 4.564**
Lebanon −0.573*** −0.061 0.499 −1.212***
Morocco 0.273 0.244** −2.904 −1.951*
Saudi Arabia −0.639*** −0.211** 1.526** 0.877
Tunisia 0.188 0.015 0.640 0.444*
Yemen −0.444** −0.042 −0.656 1.052
Reduced granger model 2 lags     
Algeria 0.030 −0.040** 0.636* 1.117**
Egypt −1.157** −0.500*** 1.822** 2.389**
Jordan −0.354 0.090 1.669* 5.572**
Lebanon −0.750*** −0.096* 0.522 −0.790
Morocco 0.324 0.161 −3.021 −1.949*
Saudi Arabia −0.645*** −0.153 1.501** 0.848
Tunisia 0.174 0.008 0.676 0.469**
Yemen −0.429** −0.007 −0.167 0.180
  1. Source: ILO-EAPEP database (Female LFP) and World Bank, World Development Indicators for other indicators. Significance level: *** = .01; ** = .05; * = .1 - *; Standard errors, lags and constants omitted. In bold, coefficient changing significance or sign in the Granger model.