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Table 4 Female participation rates panel regressions by region, age 15 and above (AB-GMM)

From: Economic development and female labor participation in the Middle East and North Africa: a test of the U-shape hypothesis

  (1) Fertility rate (2) Agricultural share in value added (3) Manufacturing value added (ln, constant, local curr.) (4) Services value added (ln, constant, local curr.) (5) Number of observations
ALL −0.412*** −0.024*** 0.416*** 0.478*** 3,461
EAS −0.032 0.007 0.343*** 0.010 490
ECS −0.109 −0.017*** 0.385** 0.331*** 966
LCN −1.594*** −0.100*** 0.804* 3.253*** 553
MEA −0.276*** −0.015 0.373* 0.552*** 354
NAC −2.044*** −0.047 2.116*** 0.345 42
SAS −0.334** −0.025 0.370 0.154 145
SSF −0.131*** −0.011*** −0.137** 0.148** 911
  1. Source: ILO-EAPEP database (Female LFP) and World Bank, World Development Indicators for other indicators. Significance level: *** = .01; ** = .05; * = .1 - *; Standard errors, lagged variables and constants omitted. EAS: East Asia and the Pacific; ECS: Europe and Central Asia; LCN: Latin America and the Caribbean; MEA: Middle East and North Africa; NAC: North America; SAS: South Asia; SSF: Sub-Saharan Africa.