Skip to main content

Table 3 Female participation rates panel regressions in the Middle East and North Africa by middle and upper income countries (AB-GMM)

From: Economic development and female labor participation in the Middle East and North Africa: a test of the U-shape hypothesis

  L.FPR lngdp lngdp2 _cons Obs. Signs
Middle income countries – non-oil producers       
15plus 0.937*** −2.484 0.165 10.552 124  
20-24 0.882*** −1.260 0.025 11.922 124  
25-29 0.898*** 13.903 −0.759 −59.841 124  
30-34 0.882*** −10.695 0.710 43.123 124  
40-44 0.837*** −16.510 1.083 65.833 124  
50-54 0.839*** −8.527 0.566 34.239 124  
Upper income countries – oil producers       
15plus 0.953*** 2.924** −0.153** −11.915** 106 +/-
20-24 0.878*** 6.974*** −0.415*** −23.214** 106 +/-
25-29 0.937*** 7.742*** −0.428*** −30.640** 106 +/-
30-34 0.949*** 4.523** −0.234** −18.845** 106 +/-
40-44 0.933*** 3.056 −0.139 −13.687 106  
50-54 0.839*** 4.054 −0.160 −20.872 106  
  1. Source: ILO-EAPEP database (Female LFP) and World Bank, World Development Indicators (GDP per capita in PPP values). Significance level: *** = .01; ** = .05; * = .1 - *; Standard errors omitted. Middle Income Countries = Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon; Upper Income Countries: United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar and Bahrain.