Skip to main content

Advertisement

Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Table 2 Female participation rates panel regressions by region and age groups (AB-GMM)

From: Economic development and female labor participation in the Middle East and North Africa: a test of the U-shape hypothesis

Region Age group L.FPR lngdp lngdp2 Obs. Signs
ALL 15plus 0.875*** −2.357** 0.174*** 3,472 -/+
EAS 15plus 0.840*** −4.988*** 0.314*** 492 -/+
ECS 15plus 0.864*** −5.337*** 0.325*** 975 -/+
LCN 15plus 0.837*** 16.573** −0.752* 553 +/-
MEA 15plus 0.896*** 10.547*** −0.535*** 354 +/-
NAC 15plus 0.801*** 214.551*** −10.175*** 42 +/-
SAS 15plus 0.968*** 10.986* −0.714* 145 +/-
SSF 15plus 0.904*** −1.752*** 0.115*** 911 -/+
ALL 20-24 0.813*** −0.671 −0.027 3,472  
EAS 20-24 0.845*** −0.002 −0.078 492  
ECS 20-24 0.906*** −4.920 0.238 975  
LCN 20-24 0.757*** 37.134*** −1.924*** 553 +/-
MEA 20-24 0.790*** 8.660** −0.483** 354 +/-
NAC 20-24 0.809*** 284.109*** −13.561*** 42 +/-
SAS 20-24 0.940*** 16.241* −1.089* 145 +/-
SSF 20-24 0.876*** 0.301 −0.053 911  
ALL 25-29 0.871*** −2.241 0.185* 3,472 /+
EAS 25-29 0.839*** −1.824 0.159 492  
ECS 25-29 0.790*** −2.055 0.128 975  
LCN 25-29 0.857*** 10.191 −0.395 553  
MEA 25-29 0.888*** 17.608*** −0.883*** 354 +/-
NAC 25-29 0.665*** 322.451*** −15.268*** 42 +/-
SAS 25-29 0.985*** 13.959* −0.920* 145 +/-
SSF 25-29 0.913*** −4.195*** 0.305*** 911 -/+
ALL 30-34 0.896*** −1.971 0.158 3,472  
EAS 30-34 0.871*** −3.421* 0.271** 492 -/+
ECS 30-34 0.861*** −3.980 0.229 975  
LCN 30-34 0.843*** 12.142 −0.477 553  
MEA 30-34 0.903*** 11.450*** −0.577*** 354 +/-
NAC 30-34 0.492*** 459.789*** −21.771*** 42 +/-
SAS 30-34 0.997*** 13.063* −0.859* 145 +/-
SSF 30-34 0.918*** −2.400*** 0.179*** 911 -/+
ALL 40-44 0.921*** −1.673 0.120 3,472  
EAS 40-44 0.838*** −5.670*** 0.408*** 492 -/+
ECS 40-44 0.920*** −0.301 0.029 975  
LCN 40-44 0.844*** 24.253* −1.132 553  
MEA 40-44 0.896*** 10.949*** −0.552*** 354 +/-
NAC 40-44 0.767*** 272.752*** −12.989*** 42 +/-
SAS 40-44 0.941*** 1.445 −0.053 145  
SSF 40-44 0.917*** −3.165*** 0.222*** 911 -/+
ALL 50-54 0.929*** −5.528** 0.385** 3,472 -/+
EAS 50-54 0.835*** −7.530** 0.536*** 492 -/+
ECS 50-54 0.892*** −18.712*** 1.136*** 975 -/+
LCN 50-54 0.800*** 49.412** −2.333** 553 +/-
MEA 50-54 0.905*** 1.923 −0.067 354  
NAC 50-54 0.790*** 338.126*** −15.914*** 42 +/-
SAS 50-54 0.943*** 3.510 −0.153 145  
SSF 50-54 0.930*** −2.985*** 0.189*** 911 -/+
  1. Source: ILO-EAPEP database (Female LFP) and World Bank, World Development Indicators (GDP per capita in PPP values). Significance level: *** = .01; ** = .05; * = .1 - *; Standard errors omitted. EAS: East Asia and the Pacific; ECS: Europe and Central Asia; LCN: Latin America and the Caribbean; MEA: Middle East and North Africa; NAC: North America; SAS: South Asia; SSF: Sub-Saharan Africa. Constant term omitted.