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Table 4 Modernity index informal sector, average by state

From: Formal sector subcontracting and informal sector employment in Indian manufacturing

State Capital per worker Location Hired workers Qualified owner Modernity index
Orissa 8.26 0.13 0.22 0.02 −1.48
Madhya Pradesh 9.56 0.15 0.36 0.07 −0.63
Bihar 9.34 0.27 0.46 0.07 −0.53
West Bengal 9.41 0.28 1.18 0.03 −0.39
Assam 9.12 0.33 0.72 0.09 −0.37
Rajasthan 10.45 0.38 0.74 0.01 −0.30
Andhra Pradesh 9.78 0.39 0.84 0.04 −0.27
Uttar Pradesh 9.96 0.38 0.80 0.05 −0.13
Tamil Nadu 10.27 0.36 1.54 0.03 −0.09
Karnataka 9.94 0.41 1.26 0.12 −0.06
Himachal Pradesh 10.16 0.55 0.90 0.14 0.15
Kerala 10.16 0.54 1.65 0.12 0.28
Haryana 11.00 0.49 1.65 0.11 0.32
Gujarat 10.62 0.61 1.51 0.05 0.33
Punjab 10.97 0.53 1.64 0.06 0.38
Maharashtra 11.25 0.55 2.53 0.10 0.62
Delhi 11.22 0.56 3.31 0.15 0.79
  1. Note: Unit of observation in the analysis is the state-industry; values in this table are averaged across states. Capital per worker is in logs, location is the share of enterprises with a fixed location outside the owner’s household, hired workers is the average number of hired workers per enterprise, and qualified owner is the share of proprietary enterprises with a technically qualified owner. The modernity index is the average standardized value, states are ordered from lowest to highest modernity index.