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Table 3 Modernity index informal sector, average by industry

From: Formal sector subcontracting and informal sector employment in Indian manufacturing

Industry Capital per worker Location Hired workers Qualified owner Modernity index
Tobacco products 8.39 0.08 0.17 0.01 −1.47
Wood and wood and cork products 9.35 0.16 0.22 0.02 −0.89
Other non-metallic mineral products 9.35 0.23 1.22 0.02 −0.57
Textiles 9.51 0.15 0.97 0.03 −0.54
Furniture; manufacturing n.e.c. 9.80 0.32 0.53 0.03 −0.41
Leather 9.91 0.33 1.04 0.03 −0.31
Food and beverages 10.18 0.44 0.60 0.01 −0.22
Metal products 10.09 0.50 1.01 0.04 0.00
Paper and paper products 10.57 0.28 1.08 0.08 0.08
Chemicals and chemical products 10.44 0.42 1.50 0.09 0.11
Machinery and equipment 10.52 0.48 0.95 0.07 0.15
Wearing apparel 10.15 0.30 2.58 0.15 0.18
Basic metals 10.76 0.47 1.54 0.14 0.48
Other transport equipment 10.70 0.61 2.00 0.11 0.48
Rubber and plastics products 11.05 0.62 2.12 0.11 0.50
Publishing and printing 11.03 0.68 1.73 0.07 0.60
Electrical machinery 10.77 0.73 2.35 0.12 0.71
Radio, television and communication equipment 10.98 0.68 2.38 0.18 0.77
Medical, precision and optical instruments 10.75 0.64 2.95 0.20 0.82
Motor vehicles 10.80 0.75 3.24 0.31 0.94
Office, accounting and computing machinery 10.76 0.40 7.20 0.40 0.96
  1. Note: Unit of observation in the analysis is the state-industry; values in this table are averaged across states. Capital per worker is in logs, location is the share of enterprises with a fixed location outside the owner’s household, hired workers is the average number of hired workers per enterprise, and qualified owner is the share of proprietary enterprises with a technically qualified owner. The modernity index is the average standardized value, industries are ordered from lowest to highest modernity index.