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Table 6 Marginal effects of multinomial logit regression (full sample)

From: The informal labour market in India: transitory or permanent employment for migrants?

  IV1: Historic migration rate: state level IV2: Economic growth of 94: state level
  Full sample Full sample
  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
Variables Formal Self employment Informal wage labour Formal Self employment Informal wage labour
Migration Duration 0.0305*** −0.00154 −0.0290*** 0.0255** −0.00428 −0.0212**
  (0.00993) (0.00719) (0.00877) (0.0124) (0.00804) (0.00962)
Urban Native 0.190*** −0.0206 −0.169*** 0.170*** −0.0328 −0.137***
  (0.0470) (0.0371) (0.0364) (0.0600) (0.0400) (0.0420)
No. of Households −0.0150*** 0.00247 0.0126*** −0.0152*** 0.00240* 0.0128***
  (0.00302) (0.00175) (0.00255) (0.00312) (0.00140) (0.00277)
Married −0.0322 −0.0219 0.0541* −0.0267 −0.0196 0.0463
  (0.0427) (0.0305) (0.0320) (0.0527) (0.0340) (0.0388)
Primary Education 0.0319 0.0308 −0.0627*** 0.0323 0.0310 −0.0633***
  (0.0266) (0.0209) (0.0164) (0.0273) (0.0202) (0.0155)
Secondary Education 0.0972*** 0.0208 −0.118*** 0.0971*** 0.0200 −0.117***
  (0.0213) (0.0167) (0.0137) (0.0191) (0.0144) (0.0125)
Matric Completed 0.181*** −0.00272 −0.178*** 0.181*** −0.00319 −0.178***
  (0.0193) (0.0151) (0.0124) (0.0184) (0.0137) (0.0114)
Tertiary Education 0.220*** −0.0139 −0.206*** 0.220*** −0.0138 −0.206***
  (0.0197) (0.0162) (0.0108) (0.0176) (0.0138) (0.00948)
Graduate 0.339*** −0.0454*** −0.293*** 0.339*** −0.0457*** −0.293***
  (0.0192) (0.0134) (0.0151) (0.0166) (0.0116) (0.0132)
High caste −0.0474* 0.0254 0.0220 −0.0463* 0.0265* 0.0198
  (0.0256) (0.0169) (0.0215) (0.0260) (0.0145) (0.0248)
OBC −0.0659*** 0.0290** 0.0369** −0.0685*** 0.0283* 0.0403*
  (0.0208) (0.0145) (0.0178) (0.0244) (0.0158) (0.0211)
Dalit −0.00897 −0.0369*** 0.0458** −0.0104 −0.0371*** 0.0475**
  (0.0233) (0.0123) (0.0207) (0.0237) (0.0118) (0.0219)
Adivasi 0.0664* −0.0315 −0.0348 0.0635* −0.0321* −0.0315
  (0.0339) (0.0193) (0.0277) (0.0360) (0.0186) (0.0340)
Muslim −0.0945*** 0.0305 0.0640*** −0.101*** 0.0277 0.0732***
  (0.0282) (0.0190) (0.0231) (0.0288) (0.0214) (0.0273)
Sikh, Jain −0.0391 0.0342 0.00493 −0.0425 0.0321 0.0105
  (0.0464) (0.0307) (0.0473) (0.0463) (0.0317) (0.0467)
Christian 0.0301 −0.0680*** 0.0379 0.0334 −0.0674*** 0.0340
  (0.0479) (0.0234) (0.0457) (0.0441) (0.0194) (0.0417)
Dependency Ratio 0.0524* −0.0244 −0.0279 0.0485* −0.0262* −0.0223
  (0.0286) (0.0158) (0.0244) (0.0291) (0.0153) (0.0222)
Observations 10,521 10,521 10,521 10,485 10,485 10,485
  1. Source: Indian Human Development Survey 2005: Authors own Calculations. Notes: Robust standard errors in parentheses. The standard errors of the estimates in the second step have been estimated through a bootstrapping process with 100 replications. Significance code: *p<0.1, **p<0.05, ***p<0.01. In all these specifications, we are considering only those as migrant who have migrated from rural to urban areas for jobs. Those who were born in urban setup and migrated to another urban area for job are not considered as migrants.
  2. In the regression we also control for head of the households age, age squared, sex, asset status and fathers education and occupation. All regressions controlled for district, state and city fixed effects as well.