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Table 4 Variable descriptions, sources and selected summary statistics

From: The determinants of United Kingdom student visa demand from developing countries

Variable Description Source Means
v Log of total number of student visa applications per 100,000 of the applicant country population UK visa Entry Clearance Statistics (various issues) - UK Border Agency 1.601 (1.791)
v Log of total number of student visa issues per 100,000 of the issue country population UK visa Entry Clearance Statistics (various issues) - UK Border Agency 1.249 (1.781)
y Log of GDP per capita expressed in US Dollars @ 2000 prices World Development Indicators http://data.worldbank.org/ 7.659 (1.367)
x Log of the bilateral exchange rate between the developing country and the UK expressed in local currency units to the pound sterling International Financial Statistics (IFS) http://www.imfstatistics.org/ −3.823 (2.843)
c Log of the real visa cost Office of Public Sector Information http://www.opsi.gov.uk/ 4.340 (0.153)
im_share Total imports into the UK from country i as a percentage of total UK imports UN Comtrade http://comtrade.un.org/ 0.231 (0.706)
ex_share Total exports from the UK to country i as a percentage of total UK exports UN Comtrade http://comtrade.un.org/ 0.181 (0.231)
D_7/7 = 1 if year is post 2005; = 0 otherwise.   0.350 (0.50)
Country-Specific Characteristics:
Muslim (%) Percentage of the developing country’s population that is Muslim Islamic Population http://www.islamicpopulation.com 36.271 (39.063)
Central Intelligence Agency https://www.cia.gov/
Common Language = 1 if country shares an official language with the UK; = 0 otherwise Centre d’études Prospectives et d’informations Internationales http://www.cepii.fr 0.348 (0.479)
Log of Distance Log of distance between capital cities (in kilometres) Centre d’études Prospectives et d’informations Internationales http://www.cepii.fr 8.680 (0.584)
Net Primary Enrolments (%) Total primary level net enrolment rate expressed as a percentage World Bank Education Statistics Version 5.3 85.291 (14.333)
Net Secondary Enrolments (%) Total secondary level net enrolment rate as a percentage World Bank Education Statistics Version 5.3 59.365 (23.059)
Political Stability Index This is a standardized variable ranging from −2.5 to 2.5 with higher values corresponding to greater political stability. It captures perceptions of the likelihood that the government will be destabilized by unconstitutional means or politically motivated violence. Worldwide Governance Indicators −0.398 (0.830)
  1. Notes: (a) The notation v is used for both applications and issues in this table. (b) For the first 8 variables listed 662 observations were used to compute the summary statistics. (c) The summary statistics for the country-specific characteristics are computed based on 89 country-level observations. (d) Standard deviations are reported in parentheses.