Skip to main content

Table 5 Two-stage least squares estimations

From: Jobs and kids: female employment and fertility in China

Variables Two-stage least squares estimation
Preferred number of children Actual number of children
Female employment status
  Not employed (reference)     
  Employed −0.638 (0.437) −0.640 (0.393)*
Other explanatory variables
  Household annual income in natural log 0.025 (0.013)** 0.022 (0.010)**
  Ethnic minority (wife and/or husband) −0.031 (0.058) 0.010 (0.055)
  Age 0.006 (0.023) 0.097 (0.020)***
  Age squared 0.000 (0.0003) −0.001 (0.0003)***
  Married 0.072 (0.145) 0.112 (0.132)
  The first child is a son −0.112 (0.029)*** −0.098 (0.027)***
  Wife has siblings 0.035 (0.082) 0.024 (0.077)
  Husband has siblings 0.049 (0.070) 0.013 (0.064)
  Smoking −0.119 (0.130) −0.084 (0.126)
  Drinking alcohol 0.102 (0.053)* 0.043 (0.049)
  Health insurance 0.061 (0.034)* 0.038 (0.032)
Education
   Less than primary school (reference)     
   Primary school −0.124 (0.062)** −0.123 (0.057)**
   Lower middle school −0.147 (0.079)* −0.143 (0.067)**
   Upper middle school −0.250 (0.089)*** −0.248 (0.078)***
   Technologic school −0.345 (0.104)*** −0.273 (0.088)***
   College −0.277 (0.105)*** −0.263 (0.086)***
Occupation
   Worker (reference)     
   Professional 0.235 (0.238) 0.250 (0.212)
   Manager 0.199 (0.253) 0.229 (0.226)
   Staff 0.221 (0.209) 0.244 (0.183)
   Other occupations 0.312 (0.281) 0.327 (0.253)
Health status
   Excellent (reference)     
   Good −0.017 (0.049) −0.073 (0.045)
   Fair −0.012 (0.055) −0.079 (0.048)*
   Poor −0.109 (0.103) −0.127 (0.099)
Province
   Heilongjiang (reference)     
   Liaoning 0.229 (0.082)*** 0.193 (0.077)***
   Jiangsu 0.186 (0.133) 0.148 (0.124)
   Shandong 0.247 (0.109)** 0.154 (0.100)
   Henan 0.565 (0.056)*** 0.484 (0.053)***
   Hubei 0.371 (0.086)*** 0.324 (0.077)***
   Hunan   0.404 (0.063)*** 0.227 (0.055)***
   Guangxi 0.364 (0.129)*** 0.312 (0.120)***
   Guizhou 0.603 (0.095)*** 0.534 (0.090)***
  Village or neighborhood population (in 1000) −0.007 (0.003)** −0.007 (0.002)***
  Han nationality allowed to have two children if the first child is female 0.187 (0.044)*** 0.236 (0.039)***
  Receiving a subsidy if having one child −0.209 (0.043)*** −0.153 (0.037)***
  Urban −0.010 (0.143) −0.060 (0.129)
  Constant 0.990 (0.483)** −1.122 (0.393)***
  1. Note: standard deviations are reported in parentheses.
  2. * significant at the 10% level; ** significant at the 5% level; *** significant at the 1% level.