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Table 4 The first stage estimation using the instrumental variable

From: Jobs and kids: female employment and fertility in China

Estimation model Estimation with “Employed” as the dependent variable
Ordinary least squares coefficient Probit marginal effect
Instrumental variable
  A bus stop in the village or neighborhood 0.079 (0.017)*** 0.106 (0.025)***
Other explanatory variables
  Household annual income in natural log 0.019 (0.004)*** 0.041 (0.010)***
  Ethnic minority (wife and/or husband) −0.064 (0.024)*** −0.100 (0.036)***
  Age 0.027 (0.009)*** 0.055 (0.015)***
  Age squared −0.001 (0.001)*** −0.001 (0.0002)***
  Married −0.025 (0.056) −0.085 (0.102)
  The first child is a son 0.007 (0.015) 0.013 (0.023)
  Wife has siblings −0.025 (0.0436) −0.031 (0.072)
  Husband has siblings −0.019 (0.035) −0.001 (0.055)
  Smoking −0.061 (0.037)* −0.197 (0.071)**
  Drinking alcohol 0.024 (0.026) 0.086 (0.044)**
  Health insurance −0.014 (0.017) 0.023 (0.026)
Education
   Less than primary school (reference)
   Primary school 0.026 (0.024) 0.084 (0.048)***
   Lower middle school 0.122 (0.023)*** 0.233 (0.041)***
   Upper middle school 0.136 (0.029)*** 0.274 (0.051)***
   Technologic school 0.148 (0.039)*** 0.512 (0.047)***
   College 0.109 (0.041)*** 0.677 (0.023)***
Health status
   Excellent (reference)
   Good −0.059 (0.023)*** −0.082 (0.035)***
   Fair −0.046 (0.026)* −0.053 (0.037)
   Poor −0.140 (0.039)*** −0.214 (0.045)***
Province
   Heilongjiang (reference)
   Liaoning 0.141 (0.028)*** 0.259 (0.052)***
   Jiangsu 0.309 (0.033)*** 0.444 (0.048)***
   Shandong 0.204 (0.030)*** 0.354 (0.050)***
   Henan 0.019 (0.023) 0.024 (0.050)
   Hubei 0.152 (0.031)*** 0.236 (0.057)***
   Hunan 0.032 (0.027) 0.046 (0.054)
   Guangxi 0.240 (0.035)*** 0.420 (0.052)***
   Guizhou 0.160 (0.030)*** 0.305 (0.057)***
  Village or neighborhood population (in 1000) −0.002 (0.001)** −0.003 (0.002)
  Han nationality allowed to have two children if the first child is female −0.033 (0.017)* −0.041 (0.027)
  Receiving a subsidy if having one child 0.039 (0.019)** 0.064 (0.030)**
  Urban 0.306 (0.026)*** 0.491 (0.032)***
  Constant −0.507 (0.196)*** N/A  
  R squared 0.378   N/A  
Tests of the first stage1
  Test of excluded instruments
   F statistic 22.520 *** N/A  
  Underidentification tests
   Kleibergen-Paap rk LM statistic 22.690 *** N/A  
   Kleibergen-Paap rk Wald statistic 22.960 *** N/A  
  Weak identification test
   Kleibergen-Paap Wald rk F statistic2 22.600 * N/A  
  1. N/A not applicable.
  2. * significant at the 10% level; ** significant at the 5% level; *** significant at the 1% level.
  3. 1 Tests are obtained using preferred number of children as the dependent variable in two-stage least squares estimation.
  4. 2 Only 10% maximal IV size of Stock-Yogo weak ID test critical value is available.