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Table 3 Ordinary least squares estimation of preferred and actual fertility

From: Jobs and kids: female employment and fertility in China

Variables Ordinary least squares estimation (coefficient)
Preferred number of children Actual number of children
Female employment status
  Not employed (reference)     
  Employed −0.070 (0.042)* −0.120 (0.038)***
Other explanatory variables
  Household annual income in natural log 0.014 (0.008)* 0.011 (0.006)*
  Ethnic minority (wife and/or husband) 0.012 (0.053) 0.050 (0.048)
  Age −0.009 (0.020) 0.084 (0.016)***
  Age squared 0.001 (0.001) −0.001 (0.0002)***
  Married 0.087 (0.146) 0.127 (0.129)
  The first child is a son −0.117 (0.028)*** −0.102 (0.026)***
  Wife has siblings 0.048 (0.077) 0.035 (0.075)
  Husband has siblings 0.056 (0.070) 0.020 (0.063)
  Smoking −0.089 (0.129) −0.057 (0.125)
  Drinking alcohol 0.088 (0.051)* 0.030 (0.046)
  Health insurance 0.064 (0.033)** 0.041 (0.031)
Education
   Less than primary school (reference)
   Primary school −0.140 (0.060)** −0.138 (0.057)**
   Lower middle school −0.220 (0.054)*** −0.209 (0.051)***
   Upper middle school −0.330 (0.061)*** −0.322 (0.058)***
   Technologic school −0.430 (0.078)*** −0.352 (0.067)***
   College −0.344 (0.090)*** −0.325 (0.074)***
Occupation
   Worker (reference)
   Professional −0.058 (0.071) −0.018 (0.058)
   Manager −0.099 (0.101) −0.044 (0.086)
   Staff −0.031 (0.073) 0.013 (0.058)
   Other occupations −0.038 (0.087) 0.007 (0.078)
Health status
   Excellent (reference)
   Good 0.020 (0.040) −0.039 (0.037)
   Fair 0.016 (0.048) −0.053 (0.043)
   Poor −0.029 (0.076) −0.054 (0.076)
Province
   Heilongjiang (reference)
   Liaoning 0.140 (0.049)*** 0.112 (0.044)***
   Jiangsu 0.028 (0.054) 0.002 (0.049)
   Shandong 0.127 (0.058)** 0.044 (0.053)
   Henan 0.553 (0.055)*** 0.473 (0.051)***
   Hubei 0.290 (0.058)*** 0.249 (0.051)***
   Hunan 0.391 (0.060)*** 0.215 (0.051)***
   Guangxi 0.237 (0.078)*** 0.195 (0.073)***
   Guizhou 0.513 (0.070)*** 0.451 (0.063)***
  Village or neighborhood population (in 1000) −0.007 (0.003)** −0.007 (0.002)***
  Han nationality allowed to have two childrenif the first child is female 0.213 (0.037)*** 0.260 (0.034)***
  Receiving a subsidy if having one child −0.224 (0.040)*** −0.167 (0.034)***
  Urban −0.188 (0.052)*** −0.223 (0.040)***
  Constant 1.226 (0.436)*** −0.906 (0.351)***
  Adjusted R squared 0.240   0.324  
  1. Note: standard deviations are reported in parentheses.
  2. * significant at the 10% level; ** significant at the 5% level; *** significant at the 1% level.