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Table 2 The changing composition and the gross flows of industrial employment

From: Industrial decline and labor reallocation in a transforming economy: Romania in early transition

Industrial Sector 1993 Gross Outflows 1 Gross Inflows 2 Gross Turnover 3 Net Outflows 1995
  (% of total) (% of employed in that industrial sector in 1993) (% of total)
Mining 7.9 18.0 16.4 34.3 1.6 8.9
Utilities 5.5 27.2 25.6 52.8 1.6 6.3
Food & Tobacco 8.2 31.8 24.2 56.0 7.6 8.7
Textiles, Clothing and Leather 19.9 31.9 16.1 48.0 15.9 19.2
Wood & Paper 6.5 43.1 25.5 68.7 17.6 6.2
Refining, Chemicals, Rubber, Plastics 6.8 34.4 16.9 51.3 17.5 6.4
Glass & Ceramics 4.0 35.4 16.6 52.0 18.8 3.7
Metallurgy 6.1 34.9 25.7 60.7 9.2 6.3
Metal forming 6.5 44.0 36.8 80.8 7.1 7.0
Machine building 14.3 37.1 17.6 54.8 19.5 13.3
Electrical equipment 4.7 42.6 16.7 59.3 25.9 4.0
Transport equipment 5.6 36.7 23.8 60.5 12.9 5.6
Furniture and other 4.0 33.5 26.3 59.8 7.1 4.3
Total % 100.0 34.1 21.0 55.2 13.1 100.0
Total number 5581 1905 1173 3078 732.0 4849.0
Standard deviation (across industries) 7.0 6.2 11.3 6.95  
Correlation between gross outflows and gross inflows = 0.37
  1. 1 Gross outflows = number of workers employed in an industrial sector in 1993 and no longer employed in that sector in 1995.
  2. 2Gross inflows = number of workers employed in an industrial sector in 1995 who were not employed in that sector in 1993.
  3. 3 Gross turnover = gross outflows plus gross inflows.